Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
THE SUMMER RED-BIRD.
PYRANGA AESTIVA, Gmel.
PLATE CCVIII.--ADULT MALE, YOUNG MALE, AND FEMALE.
This beautiful species is of solitary habits, preferring at all times the
interior of the forests, but not the densest parts of them. I have observed
that woods interspersed with what are called scrubby hickories or stunted oaks,
are favourite resorts of the Summer Red-birds.
Their residence in the United States scarcely exceeds four months. None
remain in any of the more southern parts of our districts. Indeed, by the
middle of September, it would be difficult to see a single pair in the forests
of Louisiana. So very tender do they seem to be in regard to cold, or even
temperate weather, that they seldom go farther north than Boston, or the shores
of Lake Erie, but prefer the sandy woodlands all along the eastern shores, as
far as Massachusetts.
Their flight is performed in a gliding manner when passing through the
woods, generally amidst the top brandies of trees. Whilst migrating, they rise
high above the trees, and pursue their journeys only during the day, diving
towards dusk into the thickest parts of the foliage of tall trees, from which
their usual unmusical but well-known notes of chicky-chucky-chuck are heard,
after the light of day has disappeared. This species feeds principally on
insects, and especially coleoptera, some of which are often of larger size than
a bird of the dimensions of the Summer Red-bird might be supposed capable of
swallowing. It seldom alights on the ground, but prefers pursuing insects on
the wing, which it frequently does from the dried twigs at the extremity of the
The construction of the nest of this richly clad species is nearly the same
in all parts of the Union in which it breeds. It is frequently fixed on a
branch crossing a road, or an opening of some description, or, if in the woods,
in some partially cleared space. It is usually placed low on a horizontal
branch. It is composed externally of dried stalks of weeds, and is finished
within with fine grass, arranged in a slovenly manner. It is so insecurely
fastened to the branch, that it may be shaken off by striking the latter
smartly. The female lays four or five eggs of a light blue colour. The male
and female sit upon them alternately for twelve days, and are as anxious about
their safety as most species. The young are seen about the beginning of June,
and follow their parents until the time of the migration of the latter, which
takes place a fortnight earlier than that of the young birds. They raise only
one brood in a season.
The alterations of plumage which appear in the young birds between the
period at which they leave the nest, and the ensuing spring, are as great as
those of the Orchard Oriole. They are at first nearly of the colour of the
female. The males become a little mottled with dull reddish-orange, towards the
time of their departure for the south, the females only deepening their tints.
I have several times attempted to raise the young from the nest, but in
vain. Insects, fruits, and eggs, mixed with boiled meat of various kinds,
always failed, and the birds generally died in a very few days, uttering a dull
note, as if elicited by great suffering. The same note is emitted by the young
in their state of freedom, when, perched on a branch, they await the appearance
of their parents with their proper food.
I found this species in the Texas about the middle of April, when it was
arriving from the south. At this period many of the males were in full plumage,
while almost as many were imperfect; but I observed that before we left
Galveston, about the middle of May, scarcely one was met with in the latter
state; and, although a considerable number reach even our middle Atlantic
districts, in a mottled and incomplete livery, it is the opinion of my friend
Dr. BACHMAN, as well as my own, that the males obtain all the beauty of their
colours when about twelve months old. This opinion is founded on the fact, that
mottled birds of this species are comparatively but rarely found in the act of
breeding. I now feel almost quite certain that too great an extent of time has
hitherto been supposed necessary for this bird to acquire its perfect plumage;
and this is equally the case with several other species. My friends Mr. HARRIS
and Dr. TRUDEAU have procured female Summer Red-birds almost as red as the
males. They were obtained while breeding, and I am informed by these gentlemen
that such cases are not rare. This bird sings pleasantly during the spring, for
nearly half an hour in succession, and, although its notes have some resemblance
to those of the Red-eyed Vireo, they are sweeter and more varied, surpassing,
indeed, those of the Baltimore-bird, and nearly equalling those of the Orchard
I have represented an adult male, his mate, and a young bird in its
singularly patched state, to enable you to judge how different a family of these
birds must appear to the eye of a person unacquainted with the peculiarity of
their differences and changes of plumage.
The vine on which you see them is usually called the Muscadine. It grows
everywhere in Louisiana, and the State of Mississippi, and that most
luxuriantly. In those States you may see vines of this species fifteen inches
in diameter near the roots, either entwined round the trunk of a large tree, and
by this means reaching the top branches and extending over them and those of
another tree, or, as if by magic, swinging in the air, from roots attached at
once to some of the uppermost branches. In favourable seasons, they are laden
with grapes, which hang in small clusters from every branch, from which, when
they are fully ripe, a good shake will make them fall in astonishing quantity.
The skin is thick and very tough, the pulp glutinous, but so peculiarly
flavoured as to be very agreeable to the taste. These grapes are eaten by most
people, although an idea prevails, in Lower Louisiana particularly, that the
eating of them gives rise to bilious fevers. For my part, I can well say, that
the more I have eaten of them the better I have found myself; and for this
reason seldom lost an opportunity of refreshing my palate with some of them in
my rambles. I am equally confident, that their juice would make an excellent
wine. Another absurd opinion prevails in Louisiana, which is, that the common
blackberries, however ripe and pleasant, produce biles; although the country
people make use of a strong decoction of the root as a cure for dysentery.
Male, 7 1/2, 11.
From Texas to Massachusetts. In the interior to Canada. Abundant.
SUMMER RED-BIRD, Tanagra aestiva, Wils. Amer. Orn., vol. i. p. 95.
TANAGRA AESTIVA, Bonap. Syn., p. 105.
SUMMER RED-BIRD, Tanagra aestiva, Nutt. Man., vol. i. p. 469.
SUMMER RED-BIRD, Tanagra aestiva, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. i. p. 232;vol. v. p. 518.
Bill rather short, robust, tapering, compressed, acute; upper mandible a
little convex in its dorsal outline, convex on the sides, the acute edge
slightly notched near the tip, which is a little declinate; lower mandible also
a little convex in its dorsal outline, with the edges inflected. Nostrils
basal, lateral, round. Head large. Body rather long. Feet shortish; tarsus
compressed, anteriorly scutellate, about the length of the middle toe; outer toe
united at the base to the middle one; claws arched, compressed, acute,
Plumage soft, blended, glossy. Wings of ordinary length, the second quill
longest. Tail slightly emarginate, of twelve acute feathers.
Bill yellowish-brown above, bluish below. Iris hazel. Feet and claws
light greyish-blue. The whole plumage is vermilion, brighter on the lower
parts, excepting the tips and inner webs of the quills, which are tinged with
Length 7 1/4 inches, extent of wings 11; bill along the ridge 7/12, along
the gap 1; tarsus 5/6.
The general colour above is light brownish-green, the sides of the head and
the under parts generally brownish-yellow; larger wing-coverts dusky, edged with
yellow; quills deep brown, externally margined with yellowish-red; tall-feathers
of the same colour. The bill, eyes and legs are of the same tints as in the
Dimensions nearly the same.
Dull vermilion, spotted with dull green.
The palate is ascending, concave in the middle, with two ridges, and a
small soft prominence in front; the upper mandible has three ridges beneath, of
which the lateral are broader. The posterior aperture of the nares is linear
and papillate on the edges. The tongue is 7 twelfths long, somewhat triangular,
sagittate and papillate at the base, fleshy and convex above, the point horny,
thin-edged and lacerated. The width of the mouth is 5 1/2 twelfths. The
oesophagus is 2 inches 10 twelfths long, its greatest width 4 twelfths. The
stomach is very small, broadly elliptical, 5 1/2 twelfths long, 5 twelfths in
breadth; its lateral muscles rather small; the epithelium thin, tough, and
longitudinally rugous. Intestine 7 1/4 inches long, from 2 twelfths to 1
twelfth in breadth; coeca extremely small, scarcely distinct from the intestine.
The trachea is 2 inches long, about 1 twelfth in breadth; its rings about 75.
Bronchial half rings about 15. The muscles are as usual; the inferior laryngeal
very small. Salivary glands very slender, extending to behind the articulation
of the lower jaw.
THE WILD MUSCADINE.
VITIS ROTUNDIFOLIA, Mich., Flor. Amer., vol. ii. p. 231. Pursch, Flor.
Amer., vol. i. p. 169.--PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Linn.--VITES, Juss.
Leaves between heart-shaped and kidney-shaped, nearly equally toothed,
shining on both sides.