Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
GENUS XVIII.--PYRANGA, Vieill. SUMMER RED-BIRD.
Bill of moderate length, robust, tapering, compressed toward the end,
acute; upper mandible with its dorsal line declinate and considerably convex,
the ridge rather narrow, nasal sinus very short and wide, the sides convex, the
edges sharp, slightly arched, with a festoon about the middle, the notches
distinct, the tip very slender, declinate; lower mandible strong, with the angle
short and rounded, the dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the edges direct,
the tip acute. Nostrils basal, round. Head ovate; neck short; body compact.
Tarsus short, with seven scutella; toes rather small, the first moderate, the
outer slightly longer than the inner, and adherent at the base. Claws moderate,
well arched, much compressed, laterally grooved, acute, those of the first and
third toes equal. Plumage soft and blended; distinct bristles at the base of
upper mandible. Wings rather long, with the second and third quills longest,
the first little shorter. Tail of moderate length, emarginate. Upper mandible
concave, with three longitudinal ridges; tongue somewhat triangular, convex
above, with the point thin-edged and lacerated; oesophagus dilated about the
middle; stomach broadly elliptical, small, its lateral muscles rather small;
epithelium thin, longitudinally rugous; intestine short; coeca extremely small.
Inferior laryngeal muscles four on each side, but very small.