Genus XVIII.--Pyranga, Vieill. Summer Red-Bird.

The definitive website on wildbirds & nature

Birds of America

By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.


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Bill of moderate length, robust, tapering, compressed toward the end, acute; upper mandible with its dorsal line declinate and considerably convex, the ridge rather narrow, nasal sinus very short and wide, the sides convex, the edges sharp, slightly arched, with a festoon about the middle, the notches distinct, the tip very slender, declinate; lower mandible strong, with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the edges direct, the tip acute. Nostrils basal, round. Head ovate; neck short; body compact. Tarsus short, with seven scutella; toes rather small, the first moderate, the outer slightly longer than the inner, and adherent at the base. Claws moderate, well arched, much compressed, laterally grooved, acute, those of the first and third toes equal. Plumage soft and blended; distinct bristles at the base of upper mandible. Wings rather long, with the second and third quills longest, the first little shorter. Tail of moderate length, emarginate. Upper mandible concave, with three longitudinal ridges; tongue somewhat triangular, convex above, with the point thin-edged and lacerated; oesophagus dilated about the middle; stomach broadly elliptical, small, its lateral muscles rather small; epithelium thin, longitudinally rugous; intestine short; coeca extremely small. Inferior laryngeal muscles four on each side, but very small.

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