Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
TURDUS MUSTELINUS, Gmel.
PLATE CXLIV.--MALE AND FEMALE.
Kind reader, you now see before you my greatest favourite of the feathered
tribes of our woods. To it I owe much. How often has it revived my drooping
spirits, when I have listened to its wild notes in the forest, after passing a
restless night in my slender shed, so feebly secured against the violence of the
storm, as to shew me the futility of my best efforts to rekindle my little fire,
whose uncertain and vacillating light had gradually died away under the
destructive weight of the dense torrents of rain that seemed to involve the
heavens and the earth in one mass of fearful murkiness, save when the red
streaks of the flashing thunderbolt burst on the dazzled eye, and, glancing
along the huge trunk of the stateliest and noblest tree in my immediate
neighbourhood, were instantly followed by an uproar of crackling, crashing, and
deafening sounds, rolling their volumes in tumultuous eddies far and near, as if
to silence the very breathings of the unformed thought! How often, after such a
night, when far from my dear home, and deprived of the presence of those nearest
to my heart, wearied, hungry, drenched, and so lonely and desolate as almost to
question myself why I was thus situated, when I have seen the fruits of my
labours on the eve of being destroyed, as the water, collected into a stream,
rushed through my little camp, and forced me to stand erect, shivering in a cold
fit like that of a severe ague, when I have been obliged to wait with the
patience of a martyr for the return of day, trying in vain to destroy the
tormenting moschettoes, silently counting over the years of my youth, doubting
perhaps if ever again I should return to my home, and embrace my family!--how
often, as the first glimpses of morning gleamed doubtfully amongst the dusky
masses of the forest-trees, has there come upon my ear, thrilling along the
sensitive cords which connect that organ with the heart, the delightful music of
this harbinger of day!--and how fervently, on such occasions, have I blessed the
Being who formed the Wood Thrush, and placed it in those solitary forests, as if
to console me amidst my privations, to cheer my depressed mind, and to make me
feel, as I did, that never ought man to despair, whatever may be his situation,
as he can never be certain that aid and deliverance are not at hand.
The Wood Thrush seldom commits a mistake after such a storm as I have
attempted to describe; for no sooner are its sweet notes heard than the heavens
gradually clear, the bright refracted light rises in gladdening rays from
beneath the distant horizon, the effulgent beams increase in their intensity,
and the great orb of day at length bursts on the sight. The grey vapour that
floats along the ground is quickly dissipated, the world smiles at the happy
change, and the woods are soon heard to echo the joyous thanks of their many
songsters. At that moment, all fears vanish, giving place to an inspiriting
hope. The hunter prepares to leave his camp. He listens to the Wood Thrush,
while he thinks of the course which he ought to pursue, and as the bird
approaches to peep at him, and learn somewhat of his intentions, he raises his
mind towards the Supreme Disposer of events. Seldom, indeed, have I heard the
song of this Thrush, without feeling all that tranquillity of mind, to which the
secluded situation in which it delights is so favourable. The thickest and
darkest woods always appear to please it best. The borders of murmuring
streamlets, overshadowed by the dense foliage of the lofty trees growing on the
gentle declivities, amidst which the sunbeams seldom penetrate, are its
favourite resorts. There it is, kind reader, that the musical powers of this
hermit of the woods must be heard, to be fully appreciated and enjoyed.
The song of the Wood Thrush, although composed of but few notes, is so
powerful, distinct, clear, and mellow, that it is impossible for any person to
hear it without being struck by the effect which it produces on the mind. I do
not know to what instrumental sounds I can compare these notes, for I really
know none so melodious and harmonical. They gradually rise in strength, and
then fall in gentle cadences, becoming at length so low as to be scarcely
audible; like the emotions of the lover, who at one moment exults in the hope of
possessing the object of his affections, and the next pauses in suspense,
doubtful of the result of all his efforts to please.
Several of these birds seem to challenge each other from different portions
of the forest, particularly towards evening, and at that time nearly all the
other songsters being about to retire to rest, the notes of the Wood Thrush are
doubly pleasing. One would think that each individual is anxious to excel his
distant rival, and I have frequently thought that on such occasions their music
is more than ordinarily effective, as it then exhibits a degree of skilful
modulation quite beyond my power to describe. These concerts are continued for
some time after sunset, and take place in the month of June, when the females
This species glides swiftly through the woods, whilst on wing, and performs
its migrations without appearing in the open country. It is a constant resident
in the State of Louisiana, to which the dispersed individuals resort, as to
winter quarters, from the different parts of the United States, to which they
had gone to breed. They reach Pennsylvania about the beginning or middle of
April, and gradually proceed farther north.
Their food consists of different kinds of berries and small fruits, which
they procure in the woods, without ever interfering with the farmer. They also
occasionally feed on insects and various lichens.
The nest is usually placed in a low horizontal branch of the dogwood tree,
occasionally on smaller shrubs. It is large, well saddled on the branch, and
composed externally of dry leaves of various kinds, with a second bed of grasses
and mud, and an internal layer of fine fibrous roots. The eggs are four or
five, of a beautiful uniform light blue. The nest is generally found in deep
swampy hollows, on the sides of hills.
On alighting on a branch, this Thrush gives its tail a few jets, uttering
at each motion a low chuckling note peculiar to itself, and very different from
those of the Hermit or Tawny Thrush. It then stands still for awhile, with the
feathers of the hind part a little raised. It walks and hops along the branches
with much ease, and often bends down its head to peep at the objects around. It
frequently alights on the ground, and scratches up the dried leaves in search of
worms and beetles, but suddenly flies back to the trees, on the least alarm.
The sight of a fox or racoon causes them much anxiety, and they generally
follow these animals at a respectful distance, uttering a mournful cluck, well
known to hunters. Although, during winter, these birds are numerous in
Louisiana, they never form themselves into flocks, but go singly at this period,
and only in pairs in the breeding season. They are easily reared from the nest,
and sing nearly as well in confinement as while free. Their song is
occasionally heard during the whole winter, particularly when the sun reappears
after a shower. Their flesh is extremely delicate and juicy, and many of them
are killed with the blow-gun.
You here see the dogwood in its autumnal colouring, adorned with its
berries, of which the Wood Thrush is fond.
WOOD THRUSH, Turdus melodus, Wils. Amer. Orn., vol. i. p. 35.
TURDUS MUSTELINUS, Bonap. Syn., p. 75.
WOOD THRUSH, Turdus mustelinus, Nutt. Man., vol. i. p. 343.
WOOD THRUSH, Turdus mustelinus, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. i. p. 372; vol. v.p. 446.
Upper parts light yellowish-brown, the head and hind neck of a tint
approaching to reddish-orange; the rump and tail-coverts duller and of an
olivaceous tint; quills and tail-coverts light olive-brown, the outer webs of
the coverts and quills like the back; eyes margined with a whitish circle; lower
parts white, anteriorly tined with yellow, the sides and lower part of the neck,
the fore part of the breast, and the sides of the body marked with large
roundish or broadly ovato-triangular decided brownish-black spots.
Male, 8, 13.