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Family XII. Turdinae. Thrushes

Family XII. Turdinae. Thrushes

The definitive website on wildbirds & nature

Birds of America

By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.


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Bill short, or of moderate length, rather strong, straight, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal outline a little convex and declinate, the tip small, rather acute, the notches small; lower mandible with the and rather short, of moderate width, the dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the tip acute. Head oblong, compressed, of moderate size; neck rather short; body moderate. Eyes of moderate size. External aperture of ear large and roundish. Feet of moderate strength; tarsus compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes rather strong, compressed; first, second, and fourth, nearly equal, third much longer, and adherent to the fourth at the base; claws rather long, arched, compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Plumage rather blended. Bristles small. Wings of moderate length, broad, rounded; the first quill very small, third and fourth longest. Tail of twelve feathers, varying in length. Tongue sagittate, and papillate at the base, slender, tapering, its tip slit. OEsophagus rather narrow, without crop; proventriculus oblong; stomach a gizzard of moderate strength, its lateral and lower muscles distinct; the epithelium dense and rugous; intestine of moderate length; coeca very small, cylindrical. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.

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