Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
FAMILY XII. TURDINAE. THRUSHES.
Bill short, or of moderate length, rather strong, straight, compressed
toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal outline a little convex and
declinate, the tip small, rather acute, the notches small; lower mandible with
the and rather short, of moderate width, the dorsal line straight, the sides
convex, the tip acute. Head oblong, compressed, of moderate size; neck rather
short; body moderate. Eyes of moderate size. External aperture of ear large
and roundish. Feet of moderate strength; tarsus compressed, with seven anterior
scutella; toes rather strong, compressed; first, second, and fourth, nearly
equal, third much longer, and adherent to the fourth at the base; claws rather
long, arched, compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Plumage rather blended.
Bristles small. Wings of moderate length, broad, rounded; the first quill very
small, third and fourth longest. Tail of twelve feathers, varying in length.
Tongue sagittate, and papillate at the base, slender, tapering, its tip slit.
OEsophagus rather narrow, without crop; proventriculus oblong; stomach a gizzard
of moderate strength, its lateral and lower muscles distinct; the epithelium
dense and rugous; intestine of moderate length; coeca very small, cylindrical.
Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.