Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
FAMILY XLIII.--PROCELLARINAE. FULMARS.
Bill generally shorter than the head, moderately stout, compressed; upper
mandible with the ridge formed of two generally united plates, at the anterior
part of which, usually about half the length of the bill, are the nostrils; the
sides separated by a groove, the tip a decurved, compressed, pointed unguis;
lower mandible with the angle very long and narrow, the tip more or less
decurved. Head of moderate size, ovate; neck of moderate length; body compact.
Feet of ordinary length, rather slender; tibia bare below for a short space;
tarsus a little compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes four, the first
extremely small and elevated, with a conical deflected claw; anterior toes
webbed; the third and fourth nearly equal. Claws arched, compressed, acute.
Plumage full, soft, rather compact above. Wings long, rather broad, pointed,
the first quill generally longest. Tail short, of from twelve to sixteen
feathers. OEsophagus very wide, often enormously dilated, especially at its
lower part, stomach small, moderately muscular; intestine of moderate length;
coeca rather long; cloaca oblong or globular. Trachea simple, with a single
pair of inferior laryngeal muscles.