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Birds of America

By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.


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Bill a little shorter than the head, rather stout, compressed, tapering, straightish, being recurvate in a slight degree; upper mandible with the dorsal line straight, and a little declinate as far as the middle, then concave, and towards the end convex, the nasal grooves extending to near the end, the ridge rather broad and flattened, the tip compressed and bluntish; lower mandible with the angle rather long and narrow, the dorsal line ascending, and slightly convex, the sides grooved for half their length, convex toward the end, the tip narrowed, but blunt. Nostrils sun-basal, linear, near the margin. Head rather small, ovate, rounded in front; neck of ordinary length; body rather full. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tibia bare at the lower part, and reticulated; tarsus roundish, with small angular scales all round, those on the fore part larger; toes four, with numerous scutella, the first very small, and placed higher, the anterior toes free to the base, distinctly margined on both edges, flat beneath, the inner considerably shorter than the outer. Claws rather small, curved, compressed, blunted. Plumage full, soft, rather dense, on the neck and lower parts blended. Wings very long, narrow, and pointed; first primary longest, inner secondaries much elongated. Tail rather short, even, of twelve moderately broad feathers. Name from ['Aphroz], foam; and [xao], to live.

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