Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
RED-AND-WHITE-WINGED TROOPIAL, OR MARSH BLACKBIRD.
AGELAIUS TRICOLOR, Aud.
How delightful, I have often exclaimed, must have been the feelings of
those enthusiastic naturalists, NUTTALL and TOWNSEND, while traversing the
ridges of the Rocky Mountains! How grand and impressive the scenery presented
to their admiring gaze, when from an elevated station they saw the mountain
torrent hurling its foamy waters over the black crags of the rugged ravine,
while on wide-spread wings the Great Vulture sailed overhead watching the
departure of the travellers, that he might feast on the salmon, which in
striving to ascend the cataract had been thrown on the stony beach! Now the
weary travellers are resting on the bank of a brawling brook, along which they
are delighted to see the lively Dipper frisking wren-like from stone to stone.
On the stunted bushes above them some curious Jays are chattering, and as my
friends are looking upon the gay and restless birds, they are involuntarily led
to extend their gaze to the green slope beneath the more distant crags, where
they spy a mountain sheep, watching the movements of the travellers, as well as
those of yon wolves stealing silently toward the fleet-footed animal. Again the
pilgrims are in motion; they wind their pathless way round rocks and fissures;
they have reached the greatest height of the sterile platform; and as they gaze
on the valleys whose waters hasten to join the Pacific Ocean, and bid adieu,
perhaps for the last time, to the dear friends they have left in the distant
east, how intense must be their feelings, as thoughts of the past and the future
blend themselves in their anxious minds! But now I see them, brother-like, with
lighter steps, descending toward the head waters of the famed Oregon. They have
reached the great stream, and seating themselves in a canoe, shoot adown the
current, gazing on the beautiful shrubs and flowers that ornament the banks, and
the majestic trees that cover the sides of the valley, all new to them, and
presenting a wide field of discovery. The melodies of unknown songsters enliven
their spirits, and glimpses of gaudily plumed birds excite their desire to
search those beautiful thickets; but time is urgent, and onward they must speed.
A deer crosses the stream, they pursue and capture it; and it being now evening,
they land and soon form a camp, carefully concealed from the prying eyes of the
lurking savage. The night is past, the dawn smiles upon the refreshed
travellers, who launch their frail bark; and as they slowly float on the stream,
both listen attentively to the notes of the Red-and-White-winged Troopial, and
wonder how similar they are to those of the "Red-winged Starling:" they think of
the affinities of species, and especially of those of the lively birds composing
this beautiful group.
This beautiful species was discovered in Upper California by my friend
THOMAS NUTTALL, Esq., from whom I received the specimen represented in the
plate, together with the following account. "Flocks of this vagrant bird,
which, in all probability, extends its migrations into Oregon, are very common
around Santa Barbara in Upper California, in the month of April. Their habits
are similar to those of the Red-winged Starling, (Agelaius phoeniceus,) but they
keep in large flocks apart from that species, which also inhabits this country
as well as Mexico. They are seldom seen but in the near suburbs of the town,
feeding at this time almost exclusively on the maggots or larvae of the
blow-flies, which are generated in the offal of the cattle constantly killed
around the town for the sake of the hides. In large whirling flocks they are
seen associated with the Cow-birds, Common Grakles, Red-wings, and a small
species with an orange-yellow head, flitting about in quest of food, or perching
on the orchard trees in the town, where they keep up an incessant chatter and
discordant confused warble, much more harsh or guttural than the note of the
Cow-bird. They are also common around Monterey. With the female, and the
circumstances of breeding, I am not acquainted."
RED-AND-WHITE-WINGED TROOPIAL, Icterus tricolor, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. v.p. 1
Male, 9; wing, 5.
North California. Abundant. Migratory.
Bill nearly as long as the head, conical, straight, moderately stout,
tapering to a fine point; upper mandible with the dorsal line nearly straight,
being a little convex at the base, the ridge a little flattened toward the base,
where it runs into a short tapering process, the sides rounded, the edges
inflected, the tip a little depressed; lower mandible higher at the base than
the upper, with the angle rather short and wide, the sides rather flat at the
base, convex toward the end, the edges inflected, the tip acute; the gap-line
straight, but at the base deflected. Nostrils oval, in the fore part of the
short nasal depression.
Head of moderate size, ovate, with the forehead flattened; neck short; body
moderately stout. Feet of ordinary length; tarsus rather stout, compressed,
with seven large anterior scutella, of which the upper are blended, and two
lateral plates meeting at an acute angle behind; toes rather large, compressed,
the first much stronger, the outer a little shorter than the inner; claws large,
arched, compressed, acute.
Plumage soft, blended, glossy, the feathers ovate and rounded. Wings of
ordinary length, the second and third quills longest and equal, the first
shorter than the fourth; the outer secondaries abrupt, and slightly repand.
Tail of twelve broadly rounded feathers, rather long, almost even, the lateral
feathers being only two-twelfths of an inch shorter than the longest.
Bill and feet black, iris hazel. The general colour of the plumage is
glossy bluish-black; the smaller wing-coverts deep carmine, their lower row
Length to end of tail 9 inches; bill along the ridge 11/12; wing from
flexure 5; tail 3 7/12; tarsus 1 (2 1/2)/12 hind toe (6 1/2)/12, its claw 7/12;
second toe 8/12, its claw (4 1/2)/12; third toe (10 1/2)/12, its claw 5/12;
fourth toe (7 1/2)/12, its claw 4/12.