Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
GENUS VIII.--CARDUELIS, Cuv. GOLDFINCH.
Bill short, or of moderate length, conical, very stout at the base,
compressed toward the end, and tapering to a fine point; upper mandible a little
broader, with the nasal sinus very broad, the dorsal outline very slightly
convex, the ridge narrowed toward the end, the sides convex, the edges a little
inflected and overlapping, the edges slightly ascending at the base, the notches
obsolete, the tip very acute; lower mandible with the angle short and rounded,
the dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the tip very acute. Nostrils basal,
roundish, concealed by the feathers. Head roundish-ovate; neck short; body
rather full. Legs rather short; tarsus short, compressed, slender, with seven
scutella; toes moderate, the first large, the lateral nearly equal. Claws long,
compressed, moderately curved, very acute. Plumage very soft and blended.
Wings rather long, pointed, the first, second, and third quills about equal and
longest. Tail rather short, deeply emarginate. Roof of upper mandible deeply
concave; tongue grooved above, pointed; oesophagus dilated about the middle;
stomach small, broadly elliptical, moderately muscular; intestine short; coeca