Family X. Parinae. Tits
The definitive website on wildbirds & nature
Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
FAMILY X. PARINAE. TITS.
Bill very short or of moderate length, straight, strong, compressed, rather
sharp; both mandibles with the dorsal line sloping and slightly convex, the
sides convex, the edges sharp; notches obsolete. Nostrils basal, roundish,
concealed by the feathers. Head rather large, roundish; neck short; body short,
and rather full. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tarsus rather short,
compressed, with eight distinct scutella; toes large, the three anterior united
as far as the second joint, the hind toe much stronger and flattened beneath;
claws rather long, stout, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage very soft,
blended, and full. Feathers at the base of the bill directed forwards. Wings
of moderate length, much rounded, with the first quill very small, the fourth
and fifth longest. Tail rather long, slender, of twelve narrow rounded
feathers. Tongue emarginate and papillate at the base, abrupt at the tip, with
four bristles. OEsophagus narrow, without dilatation; proventriculus oblong;
stomach a rather strong oblong gizzard, with the muscles distinct, the
epithelium dense, thin, longitudinally rugous; intestine short, of moderate
width; coeca very small; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple, with four pairs of
inferior laryngeal muscles.