Coyote Cloudywing (Achalarus toxeus [Plötz])
Wing span: 1 5/8 - 1 15/16 inches (4.2 - 5 cm).
Identification: Forewings are pointed. Upperside is dark brown with darker rectangular spots. Hindwing usually has white fringe.
Life history: Females lay eggs singly on leaves near the trunk of the host tree. Caterpillars eat young leaves.
Flight: Three broods from February-November.
Caterpillar hosts: Texas ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule) in the pea family (Fabaceae).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Edges of river woods, city flower gardens.
Range: Panama north through Central America and Mexico to central Texas. Strays north to southern Arizona.
Conservation: Not usually required.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Neck, R.W. 1996. A Field Guide to Butterflies of Texas. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Tveten, J. and Tveten, G. 1996. Butterflies of Houston & Southeast Texas. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. 292 pp.