Manuel's Skipper (Polygonus manueli [Bell & W. P. Comstock])
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 1 3/4 inches (3.8 - 4.5 cm).
Identification: Wings are dark brown. Upperside of forewing has a blue sheen at the base and reflective white spots. Underside of hindwing has reddish-brown areas.
Life history: Not reported.
Flight: August-September in South Texas, January-October in tropics.
Caterpillar hosts: Shrub legume Muellera moniliformis.
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Tidal scrub.
Range: Argentina north through central America to Mexico and the West Indies. Rare stray to South Texas.
Conservation: Not necessary for rare stray.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Gerberg, E.J. and Arnett, R.H., Jr. Florida Butterflies. Natural Science Publications, Inc. Baltimore, MD. 90 pp. Kimball, C.P. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas - Vol. 1: Lepidoptera of Florida. Div. of Plant Industry, State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture. Gainesville, FL. 363 pp. Minno, M.C. and Emmel, T.C. 1993. Butterflies of the Florida Keys. Scientific Publishers. Gainesville, FL. 168 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Smith, D.S., Miller, L.D. and Miller, J.Y. 1994. The Butterflies of the West Indies and South Florida. Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford, U.K. 264 pp.