Margined White (Pieris marginalis Scudder)
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 2 1/4 inches (3.8 - 5.7 cm).
Identification: Summer form is pure white above and below; spring form has black-tipped upper forewing. Underside of hindwing and apex of forewing have veins edged with yellow-green or gray-green.
Life history: Males patrol for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly on underside of host plant leaves on which the caterpillars feed. Chrysalis hibernates.
Flight: Two flights from February-September in the West.
Caterpillar hosts: Various native plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family.
Adult food: Nectar from flowers of the mustard family and other plants.
Habitat: Forests, meadows, deciduous woods, streamsides.
Range: Southern British Columbia and Alberta south to central California and southern New Mexico; east to eastern Wyoming and eastern Colorado.
Conservation: Not usually required.
Management needs: Study effects of logging and grazing.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Brown, F.M., Eff, J.D., and B. Rotger. 1957. Colorado Butterflies. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown. 1980. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.