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Butterflies of Virginia -- Eurema daira

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Butterflies of North America

Butterflies of Virginia

Barred Yellow (Eurema daira)
JPG -- species photo

Barred Yellow (Eurema daira [Godart])

Wing span: 1 1/4 - 1 5/8 inches (3.2 - 4.1 cm).

Identification: Males and females differ; plus 2 seasonal forms. Upperside of male forewing yellow with black bar along inner edge and a large black area at apex. Female varies from yellow to white; forewing with gray-black on apex and black patch on outer edge of hindwing. Summer (wet season) form is smaller with more extensive black areas. Underside hindwing of summer form is satiny white; that of winter form is brick red or tan with two small black spots in cell. In southern Florida, some individuals have white hindwings.

Life history: Males patrol open areas for females. Females lay single eggs on the terminal growth of host plants. Caterpillars eat leaves. Non-reproductive dry season adults overwinter.

Flight: Throughout the year in the Deep South, late summer and fall as vagrant.

Caterpillar hosts: Pencil flower (Stylosanthes biflora), joint vetches (Aeschynomene species), and other plants in the pea family (Fabaceae).

Adult food: Nectar from a great variety of flowers including joint vetches and shepherd's needle.

Habitat: Tropical and subtropical dunes, pastures, open pine woods.

Range: Argentina north to the United States Deep South; stray to southern Arizona, South Dakota, South Texas, and Washington, D. C.

Conservation: Not usually required.

Management needs: None reported.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

References:

Devries, P. J. 1987. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their  natural 
     history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New  Jersey. 327 
     pages, 50 color plates.

Opler, P. A. 1989. Ecological and behavioral aspects of seasonal  diphenism
     in Eurema daira (Pieridae, Lepidoptera). IN: Bock, J. H. 
     and Y. B. Linhart. The evolutionary ecology of plants.  Westview Press, 
     Boulder, CO.

Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the  Great Plains. 
     Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates.

Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern  butterflies. 
     Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co.,  Boston. 396 pages, 
     48 color plates.

Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford  University  
     Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates

Author: Jane M. Struttmann

State and Regional References:

Glassberg,  J.  1993.  Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to 
     Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region.  Oxford Univ. Press, 
     New York, N.Y.  160 pp.    

Clark, A.H. and Clark, L.F. 1951.  The Butterflies of Virginia.  Smithsonian
     Miscellaneous collection No. 116:1-239.

Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998.  The Butterflies of 
     Canada.  University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON.  280 pp. 
     
Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format.
     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.     

Woodbury, E.N.  1994.  Butterflies of Delmarva.  Delaware Nature Society, Inc., 
     Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, MD.  138 pp.  [NOTE: this book only 
     treats True Butterflies (Papilionoidea).  It does not treat Skippers 
     (Hesperioidea).]
Barred Yellow (Eurema daira)
distribution map
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