Dotted Skipper (Hesperia attalus [W. H. Edwards])
Wing span: 1 3/8 - 1 5/8 inches (3.5 - 4.2 cm).
Identification: Variable and rarely seen. Forewing is pointed, particularly in the male. Male: Upperside is dull brownish orange with wide dark borders; stigma on forewing has black felt. Female: Upperside is dark brown with pale spots; underside is green-brown to dull orange with or without small pale spots.
Life history: Males perch to watch for receptive females. Eggs are deposited on or near the host. Caterpillars feed on grass leaves and live in silken tubes at the base of grass clumps. They overwinter in shelters that are partially buried.
Flight: Two broods from May-September with a longer flight period in Florida.
Caterpillar hosts: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and fall witchgrass (Leptoloma cognatum).
Adult food: Nectar from flowers of prickly pear cactus, alfalfa, thistles, and purple coneflower.
Habitat: Short-grass prairies, pine barrens, and woodland meadows.
Range: Atlantic seaboard from eastern Massachusetts (rarely) south to peninsular Florida and the Gulf Coast. A separate population occurs from central Kansas south to east-central Texas. Strays to eastern Nebraska.
Conservation: Populations should be conserved wherever they are found.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G3 - Very rare or local throughout its range or found locally in a restricted range (21 to 100 occurrences). (Threatened throughout its range).
Management needs: Care should be taken not to eliminate populations by overuse of fire on small preserves.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Denver and Fort Collins, CO.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, N.Y. 160 pp. Clark, A.H. and Clark, L.F. 1951. The Butterflies of Virginia. Smithsonian Miscellaneous collection No. 116:1-239. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Woodbury, E.N. 1994. Butterflies of Delmarva. Delaware Nature Society, Inc., Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, MD. 138 pp. [NOTE: this book only treats True Butterflies (Papilionoidea). It does not treat Skippers (Hesperioidea).]