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Butterflies of North America -- Enodia portlandia

North American Butterflies and Moths List

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Butterflies of North America

Southern Pearly Eye (Enodia portlandia)
JPG -- species photo

Southern Pearly Eye (Enodia portlandia [Fabricius])

Wing span: 2 3/16 - 2 3/4 inches (5.6 -7 cm).

Identification: Antennal clubs are orange. Upperside is brown with dark eyespots at the margins. Underside is light brown; submarginal row of 4 spots (Florida females may have 5) on forewing is slightly curved and brown line inside this spot row is straight or zigzagged. Spots are encircled by diffuse white.

Life history: Males perch on tree trunks, sometimes head downward, to wait for females. Eggs are laid singly on or near the host plant; caterpillars feed on leaves. Older caterpillars hibernate.

Flight: Three broods from March-October.

Caterpillar hosts: Bamboo: giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea) and switch cane (A. tecta).

Adult food: Sap, rotting fruit, carrion, dung.

Habitat: Shady, damp woods near stream-fed swamps.

Range: Eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas east through the southeastern United States.

Conservation: Its swamp forest habitats are gradually disappearing in the Southeast.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

Management needs: Conserve and minimally manage all remaining habitats.

References:

Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns 
     Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 	pages, 54 color plates.

Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson 
     field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates.

Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford 	University Press, 
     Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.

Author: Jane M. Struttmann

Southern Pearly Eye (Enodia portlandia)
distribution map
map legend

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