Rawson's Metalmark (Calephelis rawsoni McAlpine)
Wing span: 3/4 -1 1/8 inches (2 - 2.9 cm).
Identification: Male forewing pointed. Upperside dark red-brown with indistinct markings, median band faint or lacking, fringes checkered. Underside brownish orange with distinct markings and bright metallic spots.
Life history: Males perch in gulches to find females. Eggs are laid singly on host plant leaves, which caterpillars eat.
Flight: Possibly two flights from June-November.
Caterpillar hosts: Shrubby boneset (Eupatorium havanense) and palmleaf eupatorium (E. greggii) of the sunflower family (Asteraceae).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Moist areas including stream edges, gulches, subtropical woodland, shaded limestone outcrops.
Range: Southern Arizona, South and west Texas south to central Mexico.
Conservation: Not usually required, but some populations may need monitoring.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G3 - Very rare or local throughout its range or found locally in a restricted range (21 to 100 occurrences). (Threatened throughout its range).
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Neck, R.W. 1996. A Field Guide to Butterflies of Texas. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Tveten, J. and Tveten, G. 1996. Butterflies of Houston & Southeast Texas. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. 292 pp.