Chisos Metalmark (Apodemia chisosensis H.A. Freeman)
Wing span: 1 1/16 - 1 1/4 inches (2.7 - 3.2 cm).
Identification: Similar to Nais Metalmark, but underside of hindwing has complete submarginal row of distinct black spots and arrowhead-like dashes.
Life history: Not reported.
Flight: May to August (2 flights).
Caterpillar hosts: Havard's Plum (Prunus havardii).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Slopes and ridges in Chihuahuan woodland.
Range: Known openly from a few localities in west Texas including Chisos Mountains in Big Bend National Park.
Conservation: Population in Big Bend National Park (subspecies chisosensis) should be monitored and conserved. Surveys for other populations in west Texas and neighboring Mexico are recommended.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G1 - critically imperiled because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences, or very few remaining individuals).
Management needs: None reported.
Neck, R.W. 1996. A field guide to butterflies of Texas. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas. 323 pp. Opler, P.A. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 540 pages, 44 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Denver and Fort Collins, CO.
Author: Paul A. Opler
State and Regional References:
Neck, R.W. 1996. A Field Guide to Butterflies of Texas. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Tveten, J. and Tveten, G. 1996. Butterflies of Houston & Southeast Texas. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. 292 pp.