Carolina Satyr (Hermeuptychia sosybius [Fabricius])
Wing span: 1 1/4 - 1 1/2 inches (3.2 - 3.8 cm).
Identification: Upperside is brown with no markings. Underside is brown; both wings have many small eyespots rimmed with yellow.
Life history: Adults have a slow, weak flight, and are usually found flying in the forest understory. Males patrol during the day to find receptive females. Caterpillars eat leaves.
Flight: Several broods throughout the year in South Texas and the Deep South; three broods from April-October in the northern part of the range.
Caterpillar hosts: Carpet grass (Axonopus compressus), centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides); probably St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and others.
Adult food: Sap and rotting fruit.
Habitat: Grassy places and woodlands.
Range: Southern New Jersey south along the Atlantic Coast to southern Florida; west to southeast Kansas, central Oklahoma, central Texas, and Mexico.
Conservation: Not usually required.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Note: This butterfly was formerly called Hermeuptychia hermes, but the type locality of hermes is South America and North American populations do not represent the same species.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, N.Y. 160 pp. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Shapiro, A.M. 1966. Butterflies of the Delaware Valley. American Entomological Society Special Publication. Philadelphia, PA. 79 pp. Tietz, H.M. 1952. The Lepidoptera of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture Agricultural Experiment Station. State College, PA. 194 pp. Wright, D.M. 1995, Atlas of Pennsylvania Butterflies. Special Private Publication, Lansdale, PA. 22 pp.