North American Butterflies and Moths List

The definitive website on wildbirds & nature

The Registry of Nature Habitats

U.S. Geological Survey

Butterflies of North America

Butterflies of New York

Florida White (Appias drusilla)
JPG -- species photo

Florida White (Appias drusilla [Skinner])

Wing span: 2 1/8 - 3 inches (5.3 - 7.7 cm).

Identification: Male is solid white on both upper and lower surfaces of wings except for a narrow edging of black along the forewing costal margin. Female has 2 forms: the dry-season form is all white; the wet season form has black along the forewing costal margin and a yellow-orange upper hindwing.

Life history: Males patrol with erratic flight, searching for females. Females lay single eggs at tips of developing host plant leaves. Caterpillars are shade-loving and feed during the night and on cloudy days.

Flight: Dry-season form from October-April, wet-season form from May-September.

Caterpillar hosts: Various plants in the caper family (Capparidaceae) including Guinea plum (Capparis lateriflora) in Florida.

Adult food: Flower nectar from a variety of weeds and garden plants including lantana and eupatorium.

Habitat: Tropical lowland evergreen or semideciduous forests.

Range: Tropical America from Brazil north to southern peninsular Florida and the Keys; Antilles. Frequently visits coastal Texas, rare stray to Nebraska and Colorado.

Conservation: Preserve hardwood hammock habitat in southern Florida.

Management needs: Avoid mosquito fogging near this butterfly's habitat.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.


DeVries, P. J. 1987. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their  natural 
     history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New  Jersey. 327
     pages, 50 color plates.

Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the  Great Plains.
      Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates.

Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern  butterflies.
      Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co.,  Boston. 396 pages,
      48 color plates.

Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford  University
      Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.

Author: Jane M. Struttmann

State and Regional References:

Cech, R. 1993.  A Distributional Checklist of the Butterflies and Skippers of 
     the New York City Area (50-mile Radius) and Long Island.  New York City 
     Butterfly Club Special Publication.  27 pp.

Forbes, W.T.M.  1960.  Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States.  Part 
     IV: Agaristidae through Nymphalidae Including Butterflies.  Cornell Univ. 
     Agricultural Experimental Station, Ithaca, N.Y.  Memoir 371.  188 pp.

Glassberg,  J.  1993.  Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to 
     Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region.  Oxford Univ. Press, 
     New York, N.Y.  160 pp. 

Klass, C. and Dirig, R.  1992.  Learning about Butterflies.  Cornell Cooperative 
     Extension Publication, 4-H Member/Leader Guide 139-M-9.  Ithaca, N.Y.  
     36 pp.

Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998.  The Butterflies of 
     Canada.  University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON.  280 pp.
Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format.
     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.      

Shapiro, A.M.  1974.  Butterflies and Skippers of New York State.  Cornell Univ.
     Agricultural Experimental Station, Ithaca, N.Y.  Search 4:1-60.   
Florida White (Appias drusilla)
distribution map
map legend

Return to species list
Return to Butterflies of North America main page