North American Butterflies and Moths List

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Butterflies of North America

Butterflies of New York

Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio canadensis)
JPG -- species photo

Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio canadensis)

Wing span: 2 5/8 - 3 1/8 inches (6.7 - 8 cm).

Identification: Smaller than Eastern or Western Tiger Swallowtails. Upperside of forewing with relatively broad black stripes; underside with marginal yellow spots merged into continuous band. Hindwing with numerous orange scales. Extremely rare black female form.

Life history: Males patrol to locate receptive females. Females lay eggs singly on surface of host plant leaves. Caterpillars eat leaves and rest on silken mats in shelters of curled leaves. Chrysalids hibernate.

Flight: One flight from May to mid-July.

Caterpillar hosts: Leaves of birch (Betula), aspen (Populus), and black cherry (Prunus).

Adult food: Nectar from flowers.

Habitat: Northern deciduous and evergreen-deciduous woods and forest edges.

Range: North America from central Alaska southeast across Canada and the northern Great Lakes states to northern New England.

Conservation: Not required.

Management needs: None noted.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

References:


Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies.

     Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48

     color plates.



Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press,

     Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.

Author: Jane M. Struttmann

State and Regional References:


Cech, R. 1993.  A Distributional Checklist of the Butterflies and Skippers of 

     the New York City Area (50-mile Radius) and Long Island.  New York City 

     Butterfly Club Special Publication.  27 pp.



Forbes, W.T.M.  1960.  Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States.  Part 

     IV: Agaristidae through Nymphalidae Including Butterflies.  Cornell Univ. 

     Agricultural Experimental Station, Ithaca, N.Y.  Memoir 371.  188 pp.



Glassberg,  J.  1993.  Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to 

     Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region.  Oxford Univ. Press, 

     New York, N.Y.  160 pp. 



Klass, C. and Dirig, R.  1992.  Learning about Butterflies.  Cornell Cooperative 

     Extension Publication, 4-H Member/Leader Guide 139-M-9.  Ithaca, N.Y.  

     36 pp.



Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998.  The Butterflies of 

     Canada.  University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON.  280 pp.

     

Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format.

     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.      



Shapiro, A.M.  1974.  Butterflies and Skippers of New York State.  Cornell Univ.

     Agricultural Experimental Station, Ithaca, N.Y.  Search 4:1-60.   

Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio canadensis)
distribution map
map legend

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