Carol's Fritillary (Speyeria carolae [Dos Passosand Grey])
Wing span: 2 3/4- 3 3/8 inches (6.9 - 8.6 cm).
Identification: Upperside bright orange with black markings. Underside of hindwing with inwardly triangular silver spots in marginal row, basal disk red-brown to buffy brown.
Life history: Males patrol open areas to find females. Females may delay egg-laying until late summer. Eggs are laid singly on litter near violets. First-stage caterpillars overwinter unfed; in the spring they feed on violet leaves.
Flight: One flight from mid-June to September.
Caterpillar hosts: Charleston Mountain violet (Viola charlestonensis).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Mountain slopes, foothills, forest openings.
Range: Limited to Charleston Mountains of Clark County, Nevada.
Conservation: All populations should be conserved.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G2,G3 - Species imperiled because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences), or because of other factors demonstrably making it very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range. (Endangered throughout its range). OR very rare or local throughout its range or found locally in a restricted range .
Management needs: Management plan need to conserve this species, its habitat, caterpillar host plant, and nectar sources.
Emmel, T. C. and G. T. Austin. 1998. What is Argynnis carolae? The cytotaxonomy and systematic position of a Speyeria relic from Nevada (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Pages 443-450 IN: Emmel, T.C., editor. 1998. Systematics of Western North American Butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Fla. 878 pp. Opler, P.A. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 540 pages, 44 color plates.
Author: Paul A. Opler
State and Regional References:
Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.