California Marble (Euchloe hyantis [W. H. Edwards])
Wing span: 1 - 1 1/4 inches (2.8-3.7 cm).
Identification: Upperside of forewing with narrow cell bar very close to edge of wing. Cell bar usually devoid of white scales. Underside cream-white; hindwing with yellow-green to green marbling.
Life history: Males patrol near host plants or on hilltops for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly under host plant leaves; flowers and fruits are the preferred food of the caterpillars. Chrysalids hibernate.
Flight: One flight from April- early July.
Caterpillar hosts: Plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family, especially Jewel-flower (Streptanthus) species.
Adult food: Flower nectar including that of hosts and others such as tansy-mustard or pussy-paws.
Habitat: Rocky canyons, cliffs, moraines, gravelly flats.
Range: Southern Oregon south through California west of Sierra Nevada crest to northern Baja California.
Conservation: : Subspecies andrewsi (San Bernardino Mountains, California) is a species of concern. Other geographically limited populations are phenotypically distinct.
Management needs: Manage habitat with host plants.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: Euchloe hyantis andrewsi has The Nature Conservancy Global Rank of T1 - Critically imperiled globally because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences, or very few remaining individuals). Development and threat from invasive alien weeds are also of concern.
Emmel, T.C. and J.F. Emmel. 1973. The butterflies of southern California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles. 148 pages. Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986.California Butterflies. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 246 pp, 24 plates. Opler, P. A. 1968. Studies on nearctic Euchloe. Part 5. Distribution. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 7(2): 65-86. Opler, P. A. 1969 (1970). Studies on nearctic Euchloe. Part 6. Systematic of adults. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 8(4): 153-168. Opler, P. A. 1974. Studies on nearctic Euchloe. Part 7. Comparative life histories, hosts, and the morphology of immature stages. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 13(1): 1-20. Opler, P.A. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 540 pages, 44 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Paul A. Opler
State and Regional References:
Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.