Funereal Duskywing (Erynnis funeralis [Scudder & Burgess])
Wing span: 1 5/16 - 1 3/4 inches (3.4 - 4.5 cm).
Identification: Forewing is narrow and pointed, hindwing is somewhat triangular. Upperside of wing is black; forewing has a dull brown patch at the end of the cell. Hindwing has white fringe on the outer margin. Male has a costal fold containing yellow scent scales; female has a patch of scent scales on the 7th abdominal segment.
Life history: Eggs are laid singly under host plant leaves. Caterpillars feed on leaves and rest in shelters of rolled or tied leaves. Caterpillars from the last brood hibernate.
Flight: Three broods from March-December.
Caterpillar hosts: Various legumes including New Mexican locust (Robinia neomexicana), bur clover (Medicago hispida), deerweed (Lotus scoparius), desert ironwood (Olneya tesota), and vetch (Vicia species).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Deserts, warm or arid lowlands, roadsides.
Range: Southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas south to Argentina. Strays north to northern Illinois, northeast Nebraska, central Colorado, southern Nevada, and central California.
Conservation: Not usually required.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies including adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Denver and Fort Collins, CO. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.