Mustard White (Pieris oleracea Harris)
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 2 1/4 inches (3.8 - 5.7 cm).
Identification: Summer form is pure white above and below; spring form has black-tipped upper forewing. Underside of hindwing and apex of forewing have veins edged with yellow-green or gray-green.
Life history: Males patrol during the day for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly on underside of host plant leaves. Caterpillars feed on leaves. Chrysalis hibernates.
Flight: Two flights from April-September in mid-continent; one flight from June-July in the north.
Caterpillar hosts: Various plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family.
Adult food: Flower nectar from mustard family and other plants.
Habitat: Open forests and fields, deciduous woods, bogs, streamsides.
Range: East from the Dakotas and Canadian prairie provinces across the Great Lakes area to New England and Nova Scotia.
Conservation: Not usually required.
Management needs: None noted.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, N.Y. 160 pp. Gochfeld, M. and Burger, J. 1997. Butterflies of New Jersey - A Guide to Their Status, Distribution, Conservation, and Appreciation. Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, N.J. 327 pp. Iftner, D.C. and Wright, D.M. 1996. Atlas of New Jersey Butterflies. Special Private Publication, Sparta, N.J. 28 pp. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Shapiro, A.M. 1966. Butterflies of the Delaware Valley. American Entomological Society Special Publication. Philadelphia, PA. 79 pp.