Lupine Blue (Plebeius lupini [Boisduval])
Wing span: 7/8 - 1 1/8 inches (2.2 - 2.9 cm).
Identification: Upperside of male lilac blue with wide dark borders; female dark brown. Band at hindwing outer margin wide, orange-red, in male may be divided into separate chevrons.
Life history: Males patrol near the host plants for females. Eggs are laid singly on flowers, which the caterpillars eat. Second-stage caterpillars hibernate.
Flight: In the Sierra Nevada of California, one flight from June-August; elsewhere, several flights from March-July.
Caterpillar hosts: Several species of perennial wild buckwheat including sulfur flower (Eriogonum umbellatum) and flat top (Eriogonum fasciculatum) in the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Alpine slopes, mountain meadows and slopes, prairies, rocky outcrops, chaparral, and sagebrush.
Range: Southwestern Canada south through much of mountainous and intermountain West and high plains to northern Mexico.
Conservation: Several populations, some unnamed, are highly local, and are of conservation concern.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: Monitor status of populations, conserve habitats, and be vigilant for effects of exotic weeds.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, N.Y. 160 pp. Gochfeld, M. and Burger, J. 1997. Butterflies of New Jersey - A Guide to Their Status, Distribution, Conservation, and Appreciation. Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, N.J. 327 pp. Iftner, D.C. and Wright, D.M. 1996. Atlas of New Jersey Butterflies. Special Private Publication, Sparta, N.J. 28 pp. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Shapiro, A.M. 1966. Butterflies of the Delaware Valley. American Entomological Society Special Publication. Philadelphia, PA. 79 pp.