Mormon Fritillary (Speyeria mormonia [Boisduval])
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 2 3/8 inches (3.8 - 6.1 cm).
Identification: Small, with large rounded antennal clubs. Upperside tawny to orange-brown; male with no black scales on veins. Underside of hindwing orange-brown; base sometimes slightly darker or greenish. Spots are usually silvered.
Life history: Males patrol near the ground in open areas for females. Eggs are laid singly on leaf litter near host plants. Caterpillars hatch but do not feed, hibernating until spring when they eat the host leaves.
Flight: One flight from June-September.
Caterpillar hosts: Violets including Viola adunca, V. nuttallii, V. nephrophylla, and V. palustris.
Adult food: Nectar from a variety of flowers including goldenrod.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and fell-fields, moist prairie valleys, subarctic forest openings.
Range: Western mountains from southern Alaska south and east to Manitoba and the Dakotas; south to central California, eastern Nevada, southeastern Arizona, and northern New Mexico.
Conservation: Not usually of concern.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Royer, R.A. 1988. Butterflies of North Dakota. Science Monograph #1, Minot State University, Minot, North Dakota. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.