Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax and L. arthemis arizonensis)
These two subspecies of Limentis arthemis lack the prominent white bands on both wings. The range of these two subspecies is shown because these look so different from the white-banded form. The fact that both forms interbreed over a broad zone and produce fertile offspring is why they are treated under the single species (see page for Limentis arthemis).
State and Regional References:
Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Royer, R.A. 1988. Butterflies of North Dakota. Science Monograph #1, Minot State University, Minot, North Dakota. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.