Hydaspe Fritillary (Speyeria hydaspe [Boisduval])
Wing span: 2 - 2 1/2 inches (5 - 6.4 cm).
Identification: Upperside orange-brown with dark bases and heavy dark markings. Underside light brown to dark maroon with violet tinge. Hindwing submarginal band slightly paler than rest of wing; spots cream-colored, bordered with black, and may or may not be silvered.
Life history: Eggs are laid near host plants. Unfed, first-stage caterpillars hibernate; in the spring they eat leaves.
Flight: One brood from June-September.
Caterpillar hosts: Violets including Viola adunca, V. glabella, V. nuttallii, V. orbiculata, and V. purpurea.
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Moist forest openings and mountain meadows.
Range: British Columbia east to Alberta, south to southern California, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico.
Conservation: Not usually of concern.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Elrod, M.J. 1906. The Butterflies of Montana. Bulletin of the University of Montana 30: 1-174. Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown. 1980. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.