Relict Fritillary (Boloria kriemhild [Strecker])
Wing span: 1 3/8 - 1 3/4 inches (3.5 - 4.5 cm).
Identification: Upperside bright orange-brown with narrow black markings. Underside yellow-orange; forewing with submarginal band of outward-pointing brown chevrons; hindwing with median band of irregular yellow spots outlined with brown.
Life history: Males patrol for females all day in moist meadows. Fourth-stage caterpillars overwinter.
Flight: One brood from mid-June to early August.
Caterpillar hosts: Violets.
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Moist mountain meadows, forest openings and edges.
Range: Rocky Mountains in Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah.
Conservation: May be of conservation concern due to limited range and the intensive use of national forests.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: Locations of populations on public lands should be inventoried.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Elrod, M.J. 1906. The Butterflies of Montana. Bulletin of the University of Montana 30: 1-174. Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown. 1980. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.