Freija Fritillary (Boloria freija [Thunberg])
Wing span: 1 3/8 - 1 5/8 inches (3/5 - 4.1 cm).
Identification: Upperside tawny to orange-brown; arctic butterflies darker. Underside tawny with characteristic black zigzag median line; arrowhead-shaped white spots in center of wing at outer margin.
Life history: Males patrol for females in open areas during warm hours. Females lay eggs on or near the host plants. Caterpillars feed on leaves; fourth-stage caterpillars overwinter.
Flight: One brood from late May to mid-July.
Caterpillar hosts: Dwarf bilberry (Vaccinium caespitosum) and other plants in the heath family (Ericaceae).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Open bogs, taiga, tundra, edges of open black spruce bogs, pine forests.
Range: Holarctic. Much of Alaska and Canada; south through the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; east to the Great Lakes area.
Conservation: Not usually required.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Elrod, M.J. 1906. The Butterflies of Montana. Bulletin of the University of Montana 30: 1-174. Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown. 1980. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.