Bog Fritillary (Boloria eunomia [Esper])
Wing span: 1 1/4 - 1 3/4 inches (3.2 - 4.5 cm).
Identification: Upperside orange-brown to tan with dark markings. Underside of hindwing orange with light nonmetallic bands; postmedian row spots are white bordered with black.
Life history: Males patrol in wet areas for females. Eggs are laid in groups of 2-4 under host plant leaves, which the caterpillars eat. Third- and fourth-stage caterpillars overwinter.
Flight: One brood from June-August.
Caterpillar hosts: Willow (Salix), alpine smartweed (Polygonum viviparum), and violets (Viola).
Adult food: Nectar from flowers including Labrador tea and goldenrod.
Habitat: Bogs, moist tundra, willow seeps.
Range: Alaska and most of Canada south to the bordering United States including northern Maine and the northern Great Lakes region; south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado.
Conservation: Not usually of conservation concern.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Elrod, M.J. 1906. The Butterflies of Montana. Bulletin of the University of Montana 30: 1-174. Ferris, C.D. and F.M. Brown. 1980. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.