Gemmed Satyr (Cyllopsis gemma [Hübner])
Wing span: 1 3/8 - 1 11/16 inches (3.5 - 4.3 cm).
Identification: Wings are brown and lack eyespots. Underside of hindwing has a silvery patch at the outer margin which contains 4 black reflective spots.
Life history: Males patrol for receptive females. Eggs are laid on or near the host plant. Caterpillars feed at night and hide at the base of the plant during the day. Fourth-stage caterpillars hibernate.
Flight: Several broods all through the year in South Texas; three broods from April-September elsewhere.
Caterpillar hosts: Probably Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon).
Adult food: Not reported.
Habitat: Near open, wet woodland; grassy areas near water; near streams and ponds.
Range: Southeastern United States: the Atlantic Coast from Maryland south to central peninsular Florida; west to southeast Kansas, central Oklahoma, central Texas, and northeastern Mexico.
Conservation: Not usually required.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, N.Y. 160 pp. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Woodbury, E.N. 1994. Butterflies of Delmarva. Delaware Nature Society, Inc., Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, MD. 138 pp. [NOTE: this book only treats True Butterflies (Papilionoidea). It does not treat Skippers (Hesperioidea).]