Ozark Swallowtail (Papilio joanae Heitzman)
Wing span: 3 1/4 - 4 1/16 inches (8.2 - 10.2 cm).
Identification: Nearly identical to Black Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes). Face is yellow; black pupil in eyespot trailing edge of hindwing is not centered and touches inner edge of windwing.
Life history: Females lay eggs singly on the host plant, and newly-hatched caterpillars eat the leaves and reproductive parts. Chrysalids overwinter
Flight: Two flights of adults (April to September).
Caterpillar hosts: Yellow pimpernal, meadow parsnip, and golden alexander in the parsley family (Apiaceae).
Adult food: Nectar of flowers such as rose verbena, wood betony, puccoon, and false garlic.
Habitat: Cedar blades and woodlands.
Range: Missouri, northern Arkansas, and western Kentucky.
Comments: A relative of the Old World Swallowtail.
Conservation: Species of concern with small limited range. Alien weeds such as garlic mustard may be reducing habitat quality.
Management needs: None noted.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G3 - Very rare or local throughout its range or found locally in a restricted range.
Heitzman, J.R. and J.E. Heitzman. 1987. Butterflies and moths of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. 385 pp. Opler, P.A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Paul A. Opler
State and Regional References:
Covell, Charles. 1998. The Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera) of Kentucky: an Annotated Checklist. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY. Layberry, R.A., Hall, P.W. & Lafontaine, D.J., 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 280 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.