Martial Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon martialis Herrich-Schäffer)
Wing span: 1 1/8 - 1 3/8 inches (2.8 - 3.5 cm).
Identification: One long and one short tail on hindwing. Upperside black with some blue patches. Below, hindwing has distinct black and white postmedian line and a large, blurry submarginal orange eyespot.
Life history: Young caterpillars feed on new leaves, flowers, and fruits; full-grown caterpillars can feed on older leaves.
Flight: From February-December; the number of broods is unknown.
Caterpillar hosts: Florida trema (Trema micrantha) and bay cedar (Suriana maritima).
Adult food: Nectar from flowers including bay cedar, lantana, Brazilian pepper, tournefortia, shepherd's needle, and lippia.
Habitat: Sunny areas and fields near the coast.
Range: Southern Florida and the Keys, West Indies.
Conservation: All populations should be conserved.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: Prevent habitat destruction or loss of host plants to competition from exotic plants.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Smith, D. S., L. D. Miller, and J. Y. Miller. 1994. The butterflies of the West Indies and South Florida. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 264 pages, 32 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Gerberg, E.J. and Arnett, R.H., Jr. Florida Butterflies. Natural Science Publications, Inc. Baltimore, MD. 90 pp. Kimball, C.P. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas - Vol. 1: Lepidoptera of Florida. Div. of Plant Industry, State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture. Gainesville, FL. 363 pp. Minno, M.C. and Emmel, T.C. 1993. Butterflies of the Florida Keys. Scientific Publishers. Gainesville, FL. 168 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Smith, D.S., Miller, L.D. and Miller, J.Y. 1994. The Butterflies of the West Indies and South Florida. Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford, U.K. 264 pp.