Atala (Eumaeus atala [Poey])
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 2 inches (3.8 - 5.1 cm).
Identification: Abdomen red-orange. Upperside of male wings soft black with iridescent green overlay and markings; female has blue iridescence at basal areas. Underside dull black, hindwing with large red-orange spot and 3 rows of irregular iridescent gold spots.
Life history: Eggs are laid in groups on upperside of leaf tips. Caterpillars feed in groups out in the open.
Flight: Many flights throughout the year, but most common in early summer.
Caterpillar hosts: Coontie (Zamia pumila), a shrubby, fernlike native cycad of Florida and the Bahamas; several other introduced plants of the family Cycadaceae.
Adult food: Nectar from flowers including lantana, periwinkle, shepherd's needle, and wild coffee.
Habitat: Subtropical shady hammocks and neighboring open areas; gardens with ornamental cycads.
Range: Southeastern Florida and the Keys, the Bahamas, and Cuba.
Conservation: Eumaeus atala florida is ranked endangered by the State of Florida; may recolonize from the Bahamas.
Subspecies florida has The Nature Conservancy rank of T3 - Very rare or local throughout its range or found locally in a restricted range (21 to 100 occurrences). (Threatened throughout its range).
Management needs: Prevent destruction of habitats with Coontie. Control of caterpillars on ornamental cycads is sometimes necessary. Reintroduce Coontie to the Florida Keys.
New, T. R., editor. 1993. Conservation biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies). Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 8. IUCN, The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Gerberg, E.J. and Arnett, R.H., Jr. Florida Butterflies. Natural Science Publications, Inc. Baltimore, MD. 90 pp. Kimball, C.P. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas - Vol. 1: Lepidoptera of Florida. Div. of Plant Industry, State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture. Gainesville, FL. 363 pp. Minno, M.C. and Emmel, T.C. 1993. Butterflies of the Florida Keys. Scientific Publishers. Gainesville, FL. 168 pp. Opler, P.A. 1998. A field guide to eastern butterflies, revised format. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Smith, D.S., Miller, L.D. and Miller, J.Y. 1994. The Butterflies of the West Indies and South Florida. Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford, U.K. 264 pp.