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Butterflies of North America

Butterflies of California

Sonoran Metalmark (Apodemia mejicanus)
JPG -- species photo

Sonoran Metalmark (Apodemia mejicanus [Behr])

Wing span: 7/8 - 1 5/16 inches (2.2 - 3.3 cm).

Identification: Upperside orange-brown to black, checkered with black and white spots. Forewing outer portion black with white spots and inner portion with yellow-orange to brick-red patch. Underside gray with white spots to red-orange or yellow-orange with black areas and white spots.

Life history: Males perch in hillside hollows or flats to watch for females. Eggs are laid in groups of 2-4 on lower leaves of host plant, or singly on other parts of plant. Caterpillars rest during the day in shelters of leaves tied together with silk, emerging at night to feed. Young caterpillars feed on leaves, older caterpillars eat leaves and stems. Young caterpillars hibernate inside plant parts such as the dilated stems of E. inflatum.

Flight: Mid- February to mid-November (2-3 flights).

Caterpillar hosts: Various wild buckwheats (Eriogonum), including Inflated Buckwheat, Wright's Buckwheat, others, and possibly Kramerias.

Adult food: Nectar from flowers of Eriogonum and other plants, especially yellow-flowered composites.

Habitat: Various arid lands including rocky hills and alluvial fans and flats, oak grassland.

Range: Southeastern California, southern Nevada, Arizona, and southwestern New Mexico south to Baja California and mainland Mexico.

Conservation: Sufficient populations, but some may be threatened by invasive alien weeds such as cheatgrass.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: Probably G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

Management needs: None reported.

References:


Bailowitz, R. A., and J. P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of southeastern Arizona. 

     Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc., Tucson, Arizona. 342 pages.



Emmel, T.C. and J.F. Emmel. 1973. The butterflies of southern California. Natural 

     History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles. 148 pages.



Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986.California Butterflies. University of California 

     Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 246 pp, 24 plates.



Opler, P.A. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies.  Houghton-Mifflin Co., 

      Boston, Mass. 540 pages, 44 color plates.



Opler, P., and J. A. Powell. 1961. Taxonomic and distributional studies on the 

     western components of the Apodemia mormo complex (Riodinidae). Journal of 

     the Lepidopterists' Society 15(3): 145-171.



Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, 

     Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.



Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of western USA butterflies including 

     adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Denver and Fort Collins, CO. 

Author: Paul A. Opler

State and Regional References:


Brown, J.W., Real, H.G., and D.K. Faulkner. 1992. Butterflies of Baja 

     California. Lepidoptera Research Foundation, Beverly Hills, Calif.



Comstock, J.A. 1927. Butterflies of California. Privately published, Los 

     Angeles, Calif. [Facsimile available from 	Entomological Reprint 

     Specialists, Los Angeles, Calif.]



Dameron, W. 1997. Searching for butterflies in southern California.

     Flutterby Press, Los Angeles, Calif.



Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies.

     Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida.



Emmel, T. C. and J. F. Emmel. 1973. The Butterflies of Southern California. 

     Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series No. 26.



Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986. California Butterflies.  California Natural

     History Guide 51. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los 

     Angeles.

     

Langston, R.L. 1981. The Rhopalocera of Santa Cruz Island, California. Journal

     of Research on the Lepidoptera 18: 24-35.     



Miller, Scott E. 1985. Butterflies of the Califorenia Channel Islands. Journal

     of the Research on the Lepidoptera 23: 282-296.     



Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised 

     edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.



Orsak, L.J. 1977. The Butterflies of Orange County, California. Museum of 

     Systematic Biology, University of california, Irvine.



Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. 

     Privately published, Denver, Colo.



Steiner, J. 1990. Bay Area Butterflies: The Distribution and Natural History 

     of San Francisco Region Rhopalocera. Hayward, Calif.: Hayward State 

     University, Masters Thesis.



Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. 

     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.



Tilden, J.W. 1965. Butterflies of the San Francisco Bay Region. California 

     Natural History Guide 12. University of California Press, Berkeley and 

     Los Angeles.

Sonoran Metalmark (Apodemia mejicanus)
distribution map
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