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Butterflies of North America

Butterflies of California

California Marble (Euchloe hyantis)
JPG -- species photo

California Marble (Euchloe hyantis [W. H. Edwards])

Wing span: 1 - 1 1/4 inches (2.8-3.7 cm).

Identification: Upperside of forewing with narrow cell bar very close to edge of wing. Cell bar usually devoid of white scales. Underside cream-white; hindwing with yellow-green to green marbling.

Life history: Males patrol near host plants or on hilltops for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly under host plant leaves; flowers and fruits are the preferred food of the caterpillars. Chrysalids hibernate.

Flight: One flight from April- early July.

Caterpillar hosts: Plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family, especially Jewel-flower (Streptanthus) species.

Adult food: Flower nectar including that of hosts and others such as tansy-mustard or pussy-paws.

Habitat: Rocky canyons, cliffs, moraines, gravelly flats.

Range: Southern Oregon south through California west of Sierra Nevada crest to northern Baja California.

Conservation: : Subspecies andrewsi (San Bernardino Mountains, California) is a species of concern. Other geographically limited populations are phenotypically distinct.

Management needs: Manage habitat with host plants.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: Euchloe hyantis andrewsi has The Nature Conservancy Global Rank of T1 - Critically imperiled globally because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences, or very few remaining individuals). Development and threat from invasive alien weeds are also of concern.


Emmel, T.C. and J.F. Emmel. 1973. The butterflies of southern California. 
     Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles. 148 pages.

Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986.California Butterflies. University of 
     California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 246 pp, 24 plates.

Opler, P. A. 1968. Studies on nearctic Euchloe. Part 5.  Distribution. Journal 
     of Research on the Lepidoptera 7(2): 65-86.

Opler, P. A. 1969 (1970). Studies on nearctic Euchloe. Part 6. Systematic 
     of adults. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 8(4): 153-168.

Opler, P. A. 1974. Studies on nearctic Euchloe. Part 7.  Comparative life 
     histories, hosts, and the morphology of immature stages. Journal of Research 
     on the Lepidoptera  13(1): 1-20.
Opler, P.A. 1999. A field guide to western butterflies.  Houghton-Mifflin Co., 
     Boston, Mass. 540 pages, 44 color plates.

Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford  University Press, 
     Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.

Author: Paul A. Opler

State and Regional References:

Brown, J.W., Real, H.G., and D.K. Faulkner. 1992. Butterflies of Baja 
     California. Lepidoptera Research Foundation, Beverly Hills, Calif.

Comstock, J.A. 1927. Butterflies of California. Privately published, Los 
     Angeles, Calif. [Facsimile available from 	Entomological Reprint 
     Specialists, Los Angeles, Calif.]

Dameron, W. 1997. Searching for butterflies in southern California.
     Flutterby Press, Los Angeles, Calif.

Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies.
     Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Emmel, T. C. and J. F. Emmel. 1973. The Butterflies of Southern California. 
     Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series No. 26.

Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986. California Butterflies.  California Natural
     History Guide 51. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los 
Langston, R.L. 1981. The Rhopalocera of Santa Cruz Island, California. Journal
     of Research on the Lepidoptera 18: 24-35.     

Miller, Scott E. 1985. Butterflies of the Califorenia Channel Islands. Journal
     of the Research on the Lepidoptera 23: 282-296.     

Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised 
     edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.

Orsak, L.J. 1977. The Butterflies of Orange County, California. Museum of 
     Systematic Biology, University of california, Irvine.

Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. 
     Privately published, Denver, Colo.

Steiner, J. 1990. Bay Area Butterflies: The Distribution and Natural History 
     of San Francisco Region Rhopalocera. Hayward, Calif.: Hayward State 
     University, Masters Thesis.

Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. 
     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.

Tilden, J.W. 1965. Butterflies of the San Francisco Bay Region. California 
     Natural History Guide 12. University of California Press, Berkeley and 
     Los Angeles.
California Marble (Euchloe hyantis)
distribution map
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