Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class VoltRankDb in /home/shopth11/public_html/abirdshome.com/67520c410adc3a30837f0e4.php on line 27

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class VoltRank in /home/shopth11/public_html/abirdshome.com/67520c410adc3a30837f0e4.php on line 714
Butterflies of California -- Phyciodes pratensis

North American Butterflies and Moths List

The definitive website on wildbirds & nature




The Registry of Nature Habitats
U.S. Geological Survey


Butterflies of North America

Butterflies of California

Field Crescent (Phyciodes pratensis)
JPG -- species photo

Field Crescent (Phyciodes pratensis [Behr])

Wing span: 1 - 1 3/4 inches (2.5 - 4.5 cm).

Identification: Upperside is orange and black. Underside of forewing is yellow-brown with a yellow bar at the cell and small black patches on the inner margin. Underside of hindwing is yellow-brown with rusty markings.

Life history: Males patrol just above vegetation during the day. Females lay eggs in large batches on underside of host plant leaves. Caterpillars feed on leaves; young ones sometimes live in a loose web. Partially-grown caterpillars hibernate.

Flight: One flight from June-August in the mountains and far north, two flights from May-September on plains, three or four flights from April-October in lowland California.

Caterpillar hosts: Various asters (Aster and Machaeranthera species).

Adult food: Flower nectar.

Habitat: Flats and open areas, fields, meadows, and streamsides from plains to mountains.

Range: Central Alaska and northern Canada south to southern California, southern Arizona, and southern New Mexico; east to the western edge of the Great Plains.

Conservation: Not usually required.

The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

Management needs: None reported.

Note:Formerly referred to as Phyciodes campestris. Recently referred to as Phyciodes pulchellus, possibly erroneously.

References:

Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson 
     field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates.

Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, 
     Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.

Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., 
     Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.

Author: Jane M. Struttmann

State and Regional References:

Brown, J.W., Real, H.G., and D.K. Faulkner. 1992. Butterflies of Baja 
     California. Lepidoptera Research Foundation, Beverly Hills, Calif.

Comstock, J.A. 1927. Butterflies of California. Privately published, Los 
     Angeles, Calif. [Facsimile available from 	Entomological Reprint 
     Specialists, Los Angeles, Calif.]

Dameron, W. 1997. Searching for butterflies in southern California.
     Flutterby Press, Los Angeles, Calif.

Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies.
     Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Emmel, T. C. and J. F. Emmel. 1973. The Butterflies of Southern California. 
     Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series No. 26.

Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986. California Butterflies.  California Natural
     History Guide 51. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los 
     Angeles.
     
Langston, R.L. 1981. The Rhopalocera of Santa Cruz Island, California. Journal
     of Research on the Lepidoptera 18: 24-35.     

Miller, Scott E. 1985. Butterflies of the Califorenia Channel Islands. Journal
     of the Research on the Lepidoptera 23: 282-296.     

Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised 
     edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.

Orsak, L.J. 1977. The Butterflies of Orange County, California. Museum of 
     Systematic Biology, University of california, Irvine.

Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. 
     Privately published, Denver, Colo.

Steiner, J. 1990. Bay Area Butterflies: The Distribution and Natural History 
     of San Francisco Region Rhopalocera. Hayward, Calif.: Hayward State 
     University, Masters Thesis.

Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. 
     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.

Tilden, J.W. 1965. Butterflies of the San Francisco Bay Region. California 
     Natural History Guide 12. University of California Press, Berkeley and 
     Los Angeles.
Field Crescent (Phyciodes pratensis)
distribution map
map legend

Disclaimer
Return to species list
Return to Butterflies of North America main page