Bordered Patch (Chlosyne lacinia [Geyer])
Wing span: 1 3/8 - 2 inches (3.5 - 5.1 cm).
Identification: Variable. Upperside is black with a very wide orange or cream median band and small orange or white postmedian spots. Underside of hindwing is black with a yellow to cream-colored median band, small white postmedian spots, and large cream-colored marginal spots. Red spot near abdomen is usually separate from the median band.
Life history: During the day, males patrol around host plants or patrol and perch on hillsides in search of females. Eggs are laid in large groups on the underside of host plant leaves. Young caterpillars are gregarious and eat the underside of leaves; older caterpillars are solitary and eat leaves and stems. Third-stage caterpillars hibernate, and they may also go into diapause during the summer.
Flight: Many broods in California from March-October, throughout the year in South Texas.
Caterpillar hosts: Plants in the sunflower family including sunflowers (Helianthus), ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), crownbeard (Verbesina), and cockleburs (Xanthium).
Adult food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Pinyon or oak woodlands, thorn forest, desert hills, fields, road edges, fencerows.
Range: Argentina north through Mexico to Texas and southeastern New Mexico, west through Arizona to southern California, north to southeastern Nevada. Casual migrant to Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas; rarely to western Missouri.
Conservation: Not usually required.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: None reported.
Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Brown, J.W., Real, H.G., and D.K. Faulkner. 1992. Butterflies of Baja California. Lepidoptera Research Foundation, Beverly Hills, Calif. Comstock, J.A. 1927. Butterflies of California. Privately published, Los Angeles, Calif. [Facsimile available from Entomological Reprint Specialists, Los Angeles, Calif.] Dameron, W. 1997. Searching for butterflies in southern California. Flutterby Press, Los Angeles, Calif. Emmel, T.C. Editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida. Emmel, T. C. and J. F. Emmel. 1973. The Butterflies of Southern California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series No. 26. Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986. California Butterflies. California Natural History Guide 51. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. Langston, R.L. 1981. The Rhopalocera of Santa Cruz Island, California. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 18: 24-35. Miller, Scott E. 1985. Butterflies of the Califorenia Channel Islands. Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 23: 282-296. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Orsak, L.J. 1977. The Butterflies of Orange County, California. Museum of Systematic Biology, University of california, Irvine. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Steiner, J. 1990. Bay Area Butterflies: The Distribution and Natural History of San Francisco Region Rhopalocera. Hayward, Calif.: Hayward State University, Masters Thesis. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Tilden, J.W. 1965. Butterflies of the San Francisco Bay Region. California Natural History Guide 12. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.