Nokomis Fritillary (Speyeria nokomis [W. H. Edwards])
Wing span: 2 1/2 - 3 1/8 inches (6.3 - 7.9 cm).
Identification: Upperside of male brownish orange with darkened wing bases and dark markings. Submarginal chevrons do not touch the marginal line. Upperside of female black; outer half of wing with cream-colored spots. Both sexes have hindwing below with black-bordered silver spots.
Life history: Males patrol for receptive females, who walk on the ground to lay single eggs near host plants. Unfed, first-stage caterpillars hibernate; in the spring they feed on leaves of the host.
Flight: One brood from late July-September.
Caterpillar hosts: Viola nephrophylla.
Adult food: Flower nectar, including that from thistles.
Habitat: Moist meadows, seeps, marshes, streamsides.
Range: East-central California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado south through Arizona and New Mexico into Mexico.
Conservation: Several populations are lost due to draining of habitat or development. All remaining populations should be conserved.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: Protect and manage habitat. Moderate grazing is compatible and may be necessary.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Bailowitz, R. A. and J. P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Ariz.: Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc. Garth, J.S. 1950. Butterflies of Grand Canyon National Park. Grand Canyon Natural History Association, Grand Canyon, Ariz. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.