Yellow Angled-Sulphur (Anteos maerula [Fabricius])
Wing span: 3 1/4 - 4 5/8 inches (8.2 -11.7 cm).
Identification: Large. Apex of forewing hooked. Upperside of male bright yellow, female paler; both with black spot in forewing cell.
Life history: Fly high and swiftly. Female usually lays several eggs on a single plant. Caterpillars eat leaves and develop continously during the wet season.
Flight: Two flights, April and August-December, in South Texas; all year in Central and South America.
Caterpillar hosts: Cassia (Cassia emarginata) in the pea family (Fabaceae).
Adult food: Nectar from red and purple flowers including Hibiscus and Bougainvilla.
Habitat: Subtropical, open, sunny areas; migrants found almost anywhere.
Range: Resident from Peru to Mexico; rare, irregular migrant to eastern Nebraska, southeast Arizona, southwest New Mexico, south Texas, Mississippi, and Florida.
Conservation: None required.
Management needs: None reported.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
DeVries, P. J. 1987. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 327 pages, 50 color plates. Opler, P. A. and G. O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pages, 54 color plates. Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates. Tilden, J. W. 1986. A field guide to western butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 370 pages, 23 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Bailowitz, R. A. and J. P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Ariz.: Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc. Garth, J.S. 1950. Butterflies of Grand Canyon National Park. Grand Canyon Natural History Association, Grand Canyon, Ariz. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.