Brown Longtail (Urbanus procne [Plötz])
Wing span: 1 7/16 - 1 7/8 inches (3.7 - 4.8 cm).
Identification: Tailed; wings are brown. Forewing has a narrow white band or it may be lacking. Males have a costal fold enclosing scent scales on the leading edge of the forewing. Inner band on the underside of the hindwing is separated from the brown spot near the costa.
Life history: Females deposit eggs on the host plants. Caterpillars eat leaves; young ones live in a folded leaf nest.
Flight: Three broods throughout the year in South Texas.
Caterpillar hosts: Grasses including Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense).
Adult food: Not reported.
Habitat: Grassy openings in tropical and subtropical forests.
Range: Argentina north through Central America and Mexico to South Texas. A rare stray to southern New Mexico, southern Arizona, and southern California.
Conservation: Resident populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley should be monitored and conserved.
The Nature Conservancy Global Rank: G5 - Demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management needs: Maintain habitat in lower Rio Grande Valley refuges, parks, and preserves.
Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A field guide to eastern butterflies. Peterson field guide #4. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pages, 48 color plates. Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 583 pages, 64 color plates.
Author: Jane M. Struttmann
State and Regional References:
Bailowitz, R. A. and J. P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Ariz.: Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc. Garth, J.S. 1950. Butterflies of Grand Canyon National Park. Grand Canyon Natural History Association, Grand Canyon, Ariz. Opler, Paul A. 1999. Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies, revised edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. Stanford, R.E. and P.A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies. Privately published, Denver, Colo. Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.