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Family XXI.--Piprinae. Manakins


Family XXI.--Piprinae. Manakins


The definitive website on wildbirds & nature



Birds of America

By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.

VOLUME IV.

Back TOC Forward

FAMILY XXI.--PIPRINAE. MANAKINS.

Bill short, stout, straight, depressed, being much broader than high at the base, with the dorsal line arched, the ridge narrow, the sides sloping, the gap-line straightish or slightly arched, the notches rather large, the tip very small and declinate. Head rather large, broadly ovate; neck short; body compact. Tarsus of moderate length, compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes small, the hind one not much stouter, the lateral equal. Claws moderate, arched, compressed, acute. Plumage soft, full, and blended. Wings of moderate length, broad, and rounded. Tail short or of moderate length, generally rounded. Roof of upper mandible concave, with a prominent median line; tongue triangular, horny, thin-edged, rather obtuse, bristly at the end; OEsophagus wide, without dilatation; stomach rather small, roundish, moderately muscular, with a dense rugous epithelium; intestine short, of moderate width; coeca very small.




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