Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
FAMILY XXI.--PIPRINAE. MANAKINS.
Bill short, stout, straight, depressed, being much broader than high at the
base, with the dorsal line arched, the ridge narrow, the sides sloping, the
gap-line straightish or slightly arched, the notches rather large, the tip very
small and declinate. Head rather large, broadly ovate; neck short; body
compact. Tarsus of moderate length, compressed, with seven anterior scutella;
toes small, the hind one not much stouter, the lateral equal. Claws moderate,
arched, compressed, acute. Plumage soft, full, and blended. Wings of moderate
length, broad, and rounded. Tail short or of moderate length, generally
rounded. Roof of upper mandible concave, with a prominent median line; tongue
triangular, horny, thin-edged, rather obtuse, bristly at the end; OEsophagus
wide, without dilatation; stomach rather small, roundish, moderately muscular,
with a dense rugous epithelium; intestine short, of moderate width; coeca very