Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
DOLICHONYX ORYZIVORA, Linn.
PLATE CCXI.--MALE and FEMALE.
Very few of these birds pass through Louisiana in spring, and still fewer,
on their return, in autumn; for which reason I am inclined to think that they do
not spend the winter months so much in the southern parts of America as in some
of the West India Islands. Indeed, I am the more inclined to believe this to be
the case, as they seldom penetrate far into the interior, during their stay with
us, but prefer the districts bordering upon the Atlantic, through which they
pass and repass in incredible numbers.
In Louisiana, small detached flocks of males or of females appear about the
middle of March and beginning of April, alighting in the meadows and
grain-fields, where they pick up the grubs and insects found about the roots of
the blades. I have heard it asserted, though I cannot give it as a fact, that
the appearance of the Rice-bird in spring forebodes a bad harvest. The idea
probably originates from the circumstance that these birds do not pass through
Louisiana regularly every year, there being sometimes three or four springs in
succession in which they are not observed.
The plumage of many of the males at this early season still resembles that
of the females, but it changes in the course of their stay, which is seldom more
than a fortnight. I have ascertained this fact by dissecting many at this
period, when, notwithstanding the dull colour of their plumage, I found the
sexual organs greatly developed, which is not the case in autumn, even in the
old males. I had another clew to the discovery of this fact. No sooner did a
flock of females make its appearance, than these dull-looking gentlemen
immediately paid them such particular attention, and sang so vehemently, that
the fact of their being of a different sex became undeniable.
Here they pass under the name of Meadow-birds. In Pennsylvania they are
called Reed-birds, in Carolina Rice Buntings, and in the State of New York
Boblinks. The latter appellation is given to them as far eastward as they are
known to proceed for the purpose of breeding.
During their sojourn in Louisiana, in spring, their song, which is
extremely interesting, and emitted with a volubility bordering on the burlesque,
is heard from a whole party at the same time; when, as each individual is, of
course, possessed of the same musical powers as his neighbours, it becomes
amusing to listen to thirty or forty of them beginning one after another, as if
ordered to follow in quick succession, after the first notes are given by a
leader, and producing such a medley as it is impossible to describe, although it
is extremely pleasant to hear it. While you are listening, the whole flock
simultaneously ceases, which appears equally extraordinary. This curious
exhibition takes place every time that the flock has alighted on a tree, after
feeding for awhile on the ground, and is renewed at intervals during the day.
There is a very remarkable fact in the history of this species, which is,
that while moving eastward, during their migration, in spring, they fly mostly
at night; whereas in autumn, when they are returning southward, their flight is
diurnal. This, kind reader, is another puzzle to me.
About the middle of May, the Boblinks reach the State of New York, their
stay in the intermediate States being of short duration at that season, although
sufficient to enable them to cause great injury to the corn fields in Virginia,
Maryland, and Pennsylvania, where it is said, although I can scarcely give
credit to the assertion, that they cut the blade near the root. This is perhaps
laid to their charge for the purpose of aggravating the real injury which they
afterwards inflict on the farmers, by feeding on the grain when in a milky and
tender state. However, they reach the States of New York and Connecticut, and
extend their journey to the easternmost of our districts, proceeding also to the
borders of Lake Champlain, Lake Ontario, and the St. Lawrence.
By this time they have become so plentiful, and have so dispersed all over
the country, that it is impossible to see a meadow or a field of corn which does
not contain several pairs of them. The beauty, or, perhaps more properly, the
variety of their plumage, as well as of their song, attracts the attention of
the bird-catchers. Great numbers are captured and exposed for sale in the
markets, particularly in those of the city of New York. They are caught in
trap-cages, and feed and sing almost immediately after. Many are carried to
Europe, where the shipper is often disappointed in his profits, as by the time
they reach there, the birds have changed their colours and seem all females.
Whilst the love-season lasts, the males are more sprightly than ever.
Their song is mostly performed in the air, while they are rising and falling in
successive jerks, which are as amusing as the jingling of their vocal essays.
The variety of their colours is at this juncture very remarkable. It is equally
so, when, on rising from among the grass and flying away from the observer, they
display the pure black and white of their wings and body.
The nest of the Rice Bunting is placed on the ground, without much apparent
care as to choice of situation, but always amongst the grass, or in a field of
wheat or barley. It is composed of coarse dried grasses and leaves externally,
and is lined with finer meadow grass. It appears large for the size of the
bird. The female lays from four to six eggs, of a white colour, strongly tinged
with dull blue, and irregularly spotted with blackish. They raise only one
brood in a season.
No sooner have the young left the nest, than they and their parents
associate with other families, so that by the end of July large flocks begin to
appear. They seem to come from every portion of the Eastern States, and already
resort to the border's of the rivers and estuaries to roost. Their songs have
ceased, the males have lost their gay livery, and have assumed the yellow hue of
the females and young, although the latter are more firm in their tints than the
old males, and the whole begin to return southward, slowly and with a single
clink, sufficient however to give intimation of their passage, as they fly high
in long files during the whole day.
Now begin their devastations. They plunder every field, but are shot in
immense numbers. As they pass along the sea shores, and follow the muddy edges
of the rivers, covered at that season with full grown reeds, whose tops are bent
down with the weight of the ripe seeds, they alight amongst them in countless
multitudes, and afford abundant practice to every gunner.
It is particularly towards sunset, and when the weather is fine, that the
sport of shooting Reed-birds is most profitable. They have then fully satiated
their appetite, and have collected closely for the purpose of roosting. At the
discharge of a gun, a flock sufficient to cover several acres rises en masse,
and performing various evolutions, densely packed, and resembling a sultry
cloud, passes over and near the sportsman, when he lets fly, and finds
occupation for some time in picking up the dozens which he has brought down at a
single shot. One would think that every gun in the country has been put in
requisition. Millions of these birds are destroyed, and yet millions remain,
for after all the havoc that has been made among them in the Middle Districts,
they follow the coast, and reach the rice plantations of the Carolinas in such
astonishing numbers, that no one could conceive their flocks to have been
already thinned. Their flesh is extremely tender and juicy. The markets are
amply supplied, and the epicures have a glorious time of it.
By the end of October, few are found remaining in the States of New York
and Pennsylvania; and by the first of December they have left the United States.
The food of these birds varies according to the seasons, and consists of
grubs, caterpillars, insects of various hinds, such as beetles, grasshoppers,
crickets, and ground-spiders, and the seeds of wild oats, wheat, barley, rice,
and other grasses. They cling or climb along the stalks of rank weeds, reeds,
and corn, with great activity and ease, and when at roost place themselves as
near the ground as possible.
According to Dr. RICHARDSON, this species does not proceed northward beyond
the 54th parallel, where it arrives in the beginning of June. Among the Creek
Indians it bears the name of "Skunk-bird," from the similarity of its plumage to
the colouring of the Skunk, Mephitis Americana. It has been observed on the
Rocky Mountains by Mr. TOWNSEND. I found it entering the United States from
beyond the Texas, on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, early in April, when most
of the males were in full plumage, and I have no doubt that before they reach
the Carolinas this state of plumage is perfected.
My friend Dr. BREWER describes their mode of nestling in Massachusetts as
follows:--"This species breeds here abundantly, although, from the careful
manner in which the nest is concealed, it is very seldom met with. The
Rice-bird arrives in New England about the middle of May, and commences its nest
usually about the first of June. It is placed on the ground, and here for the
most part in meadows, and with so much pains at concealment, that it is to be
found only by accident. Ingenious stratagems are also used to decoy the
passer-by from its vicinity: for instance, a pretended anxiety about parts of a
field in which they have not the slightest interest; so that persons unaware of
this are often induced to search spots many rods distant from the object of
their pursuit. The nest is very simple, usually consisting of a few pieces of
hay and straw, so loosely arranged as hardly to admit of removal without falling
to pieces. The eggs, five in number, measure fifteen-sixteenths of an inch in
length, and eleven-sixteenths in breadth. About the 8th of August, they
assemble in large flocks, and take their departure for the south."
In a male preserved in spirits, the palate is ascending, with two lateral
ridges, which on meeting anteriorly form a soft prominence; on the upper
mandible beneath are three ridges, of which the lateral are larger; the lower
mandible is deeply concave; the width of the mouth 4 1/2 twelfths. The tongue
is 5 twelfths long, sagittate and papillate at the base, narrow, deep, pointed,
and with a median groove on its upper surface. It thus approaches in form to
that of the Finches and Buntings. The oesophagus is 2 1/2 inches long, its
greatest width 4 1/2 twelfths, contracting to 2 twelfths as it enters the
thorax; the proventriculus 3 twelfths broad, its glands forming a belt 4
twelfths in breadth. The stomach is rather small, roundish, much compressed, 6
twelfths in length, and of the same breadth; its lateral muscles thick, the
tendons large; the epithelium thin, tough, reddish-brown, with longitudinal
rugae. The intestine is 7 inches 9 twelfths long; its average width 1 1/2
twelfths; the coeca 1/2 twelfth long 1/4 twelfth broad, 9 twelfths from the
The trachea is 1 1/2 inches long, 1 twelfth broad at the upper part,
considerably compressed; the rings 55, with 2 dimidiate; the muscles as in the
last species; bronchi of about 12 half rings.
RICE-BUNTING, Emberiza oryzivora, Wils. Amer. Orn., vol. ii. p. 48.
ICTERUS AGRIPENNIS, Bonap. Syn., p. 53.
DOLICHONYX ORYZIVORUS, Sharp-tailed Rice-bird, Swains. and Rich. F. Bor.
Amer., vol. ii. p. 278.
RICE-BIRD, or BOB-O-LINK, Nutt. Man., Vol. i. p. 185.
RICE-BIRD, Icterus agripennis, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. i. p. 283; vol. v.p. 486.
Male with the head, cheeks, lower parts, wings, and tail, black; a band of
brownish-yellow across the hind neck; the back anteriorly black, the feathers
with yellowish edges, posteriorly light grey, passing into white, of which
colour are the scapulars. Female with the upper parts light yellowish-brown,
longitudinally streaked with blackish-brown; the lower parts light
greyish-yellow, the sides streaked with dusky. In autumn, the males assume the
plumage of the female.
Male, 7, 11.
Passes from Texas eastward and northward. Breeds from the Middle Districts
northward. Extremely abundant. Migratory.
THE RED MAPLE
ACER RUBRUM, Willd., Sp. Plant., vol. iv. p. 984. Pursh, Flor. Amer.,
vol. i. p. 265. Mich., Arb. Forest. de l'Amer. Sept., vol. ii. p. 210,
pl. 14.--OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Linn.--ACERINEAE, Juss.
This species, which is known by the names of red maple and swamp maple, is
distinguished by its five-lobed or three-lobed leaves, which are cordate at the
base, unequally and deeply toothed, and glaucous beneath; its sessile umbels,
elongated pedicels, and smooth germens. The flowers and seeds are red. It is
very extensively distributed, and in the swamps of Pennsylvania and New Jersey
attains a height of from sixty to eighty feet. When young, the bark is smooth,
and covered with large white spots, but it ultimately cracks and becomes brown.
The wood is hard and close, and takes a good polish. It is extensively used for