Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
GENUS XV.--PITYLUS, Cuvier. CARDINAL GROSBEAK.
Bill rather short, very robust, much higher than broad, tapering to a
point; upper mandible considerably smaller than the lower, with the dorsal line
convex, the ridge indistinct, the nasal sinus very wide, the sides convex, the
edges ascending rapidly for a third of their length, then direct, with a slight
festoon slightly inflected, the notches faint, the tip a little deflected and
narrow; lower mandible with the angle semicircular, the dorsal line straight,
the sides at the base inflected, toward the end convex, the edges involute, the
tip acute. Nostrils basal, round, concealed by the feathers. Plumage soft and
blended, feathers of the head elongated and erectile; distinct bristles at the
base of the upper mandible. Wings of moderate length, much rounded, the fourth
and fifth quills longest, the first and eighth about equal. Tail long, rounded.
Tarsus short, compressed, with seven scutella; toes moderate, hind toe stout,
broad beneath, outer toe slightly longer than inner, and adherent at the base.
Claws moderate, arched, compressed, acute. Upper mandible concave beneath, with
three longitudinal ridges; tongue as high as broad, convex above, tapering to a
point. OEsophagus nearly uniform, stomach pretty large, roundish, its lateral