Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
GENUS X.--PIPILO, Vieill. GROUND-FINCH.
Bill short, stout, narrower than the head, conical, somewhat compressed,
acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly convex, the ridge narrow and
distinct, the sides convex, the edges somewhat inflected, ascending for more
than a third, then direct, with a slight festoon; notches very slight, tip
declinate, narrow; lower mandible with the angle very short and broad, the
dorsal line slightly convex, the sides rounded, the edges involute, the point
acute. Nostrils basal, roundish, partially concealed by the feathers. Tarsus
of moderate length, compressed, with seven scutella; toes rather large,
scutellate above, the first stronger, the lateral nearly equal. Claws rather
long, moderately arched, slender, compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Small
bristles at the base of the upper mandible. Plumage full, soft, and blended.
Wings of ordinary length, much rounded, the fourth quill longest; tail long,
rounded. Roof of upper mandible rather flat, with a narrow median and two broad
lateral flattened ridges; tongue compressed, convex above, with a median
groove, horny at the end, and pointed; oesophagus slightly dilated about the
middle; stomach a strong muscular gizzard; intestine short; coeca small.