Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
EMBERIZA HENSLOWI, Aud.
I obtained the bird represented in this plate opposite Cincinnati, in the
State of Kentucky, in the year 1820, whilst in the company of Mr. ROBERT BEST,
then Curator of the Western Museum. It was on the ground, amongst tall grass,
and exhibited the usual habits of its tribe. Perceiving it to be different from
any which I had seen, I immediately shot it, and the same day made an accurate
drawing of it.
In naming it after the Rev. Professor HENSLOW of Cambridge, a gentleman so
well known to the scientific world, my object has been to manifest my gratitude
for the many kind attentions which he has shewn towards me.
This species is abundant in the State of New Jersey, and breeds there; but
of this I was not aware until after my last journey to England, in the spring of
1838, when my friend Dr. JAMES TRUDEAU sent me a specimen procured by himself
while in company with our mutual friend EDWARD HARRIS, Esq. This specimen is
the finest I have seen, although Dr. BACHMAN and myself have procured a great
number in South Carolina, where this species abounds in the latter part of
autumn, and where some remain during winter. I have found it in great numbers
in all the pine barrens of the Floridas, in winter, but mostly in sandy or light
soil, in woods thinly overgrown by tall pines. I never saw this species alight
on trees, but on the ground, where it spends its time; it runs with rapidity,
passing through the grass with the swiftness of a mouse. In the State of New
Jersey it is found in ploughed fields, and I have no doubt was previously
overlooked or supposed to be the Yellow-winged Bunting, to which it bears some
resemblance. It has not been observed farther to the eastward than the State
just mentioned. Its plumage in spring is more richly coloured than in autumn or
Winters in Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida. Breeds from
Maryland to New York. Abundant. Accidental in Ohio.
HENSLOW'S BUNTING, Emberiza Henslowii, Nutt. Man. App., vol. ii. p.
HENSLOW'S BUNTING, Emberiza Henslowii, Aud. Orn. Biog.,
vol. i. p. 360;vol. v. p. 498.
Bill short, robust, conical, acute; upper mandible straight in the dorsal
outline, angular, and encroaching a little on the forehead, broader than the
lower, acute and inflected on the edges; lower mandible also inflected at the
edges; the gap-line deflected at the base. Head rather large, neck short, body
full. Feet of ordinary length; tarsus scutellate before, acute behind; toes
free, scutellate above; claws slightly arched, compressed, acute, that of the
hind toe elongated.
Plumage compact, slightly glossed. Wings short, curved, the third and
fourth quills longest, the secondaries nearly as long as the primaries, when the
wing is closed. Tail short,
graduated and deeply notched, of twelve rather
narrow very acute feathers.
Bill flesh-colour, darker above. Iris dark-brown. Feet flesh-colour. The
general colour of the upper parts is pale brown, the central part of the
feathers brownish-black the margins of those of the back bright red. Secondary
coverts yellowish-red on the outer webs. Quills dark brown, externally margined
with light yellowish-brown. Tail-feathers dusky, margined externally with
yellowish-brown. The under parts pale yellowish-grey, the breast, sides, and
throat, spotted with brownish-black.
Length 5 inches, bill along the ridge 1/3, along the gap nearly 1/2; tarsus
2/3, middle toe 2/3, hind toe the same.
THE INDIAN PINK-ROOT OR WORM-GRASS.
SPIGELIA MARILANDICA, Pursch, Fl. Amer.,
vol. i. p. 139. Fig. 1. of the Plate.--PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Linn.
Stem tetragonal, all the leaves opposite, ovate, acuminate. Flowers rich
carmine, in a terminal spike. This plant is perennial, flowers in the summer
months, and grows in rich soil by the margins of woods, in the Middle States.
The roots are used as a vermifuge.
PHLOX ARISTATA, Pursch, Fl. Amer.,
vol. i. p. 139. Fig. 2. of the Plate.
--PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Linn.--POLEMONIA, JUSS.
This species is characterized by its erect, feeble stem, its
linear-lanceolate leaves, lax fastigiate panicle, twin pedicels, oboval segments
of the corolla, pubescent curved tube, and long subulate calycine teeth. The
corolla is rose-coloured, but varies in tint, being sometimes nearly white, and
sometimes deep red. It is perennial, flowers in the summer months, and occurs
in the Middle and Atlantic States.