Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
FAMILY IX. CERTHIANIE. CREEPERS.
Bill of moderate length or rather long, slender, slightly arched, much
compressed, acute; upper mandible with its dorsal outline convex or arched, the
ridge narrow, the notches slight or obsolete, lower mandible with the angle
rather long and narrow, the dorsal line straight or slightly decurved, the edges
inclinate, the tip acute. Head moderate, ovate; neck short, body slender. Feet
of moderate length, or rather short; tarsus about the same length as the middle
toe, compressed, with eight anterior scutella; toes of moderate length, much
compressed, hind toe proportionally long, outer adherent at the base; claws
rather long, extremely compressed, arched, acute. Wings short or of moderate
length. Tail of twelve feathers generally much rounded. Tongue slender,
emarginate and papillate at the base, very narrow, tapering to a lacerated
point. OEsophagus of moderate width, without crop; proventriculus bulbiform;
stomach of moderate size, oblong, or elliptical, moderately muscular, with the
muscles distinct; epithelium dense, longitudinally rugous; intestine short,
rather wide; coeca very small; cloaca globular. Trachea simple, with four pairs
of inferior laryngeal muscles.