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Family IX. Certhianae. Creepers


Family IX. Certhianae. Creepers


The definitive website on wildbirds & nature



Birds of America

By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.

VOLUME II.

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FAMILY IX. CERTHIANIE. CREEPERS.

Bill of moderate length or rather long, slender, slightly arched, much compressed, acute; upper mandible with its dorsal outline convex or arched, the ridge narrow, the notches slight or obsolete, lower mandible with the angle rather long and narrow, the dorsal line straight or slightly decurved, the edges inclinate, the tip acute. Head moderate, ovate; neck short, body slender. Feet of moderate length, or rather short; tarsus about the same length as the middle toe, compressed, with eight anterior scutella; toes of moderate length, much compressed, hind toe proportionally long, outer adherent at the base; claws rather long, extremely compressed, arched, acute. Wings short or of moderate length. Tail of twelve feathers generally much rounded. Tongue slender, emarginate and papillate at the base, very narrow, tapering to a lacerated point. OEsophagus of moderate width, without crop; proventriculus bulbiform; stomach of moderate size, oblong, or elliptical, moderately muscular, with the muscles distinct; epithelium dense, longitudinally rugous; intestine short, rather wide; coeca very small; cloaca globular. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.




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