Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
THE BLACK-AND-YELLOW WOOD-WARBLER.
SYLVICOLA MACULOSA, Lath.
PLATE XCVI.--MALE, FEMALE, AND YOUNG.
Few of our Warblers have a more varied plumage, or are more animated in
their motions, than this beautiful little bird. In Louisiana it is met with now
and then as early as the middle of March, but there its occurrence appears to be
merely accidental, as is indeed the case in Kentucky, Ohio, or any portion of
the Middle States, through which a few are to be seen on their passage to more
northern regions. In autumn I have seen them in great numbers near the Pocano
Mountains, accompanied by their young, proceeding southward, as I thought, along
the direction of that range. While in Maine, on my way to Labrador, in the
month of May, I observed them to be very abundant by the roads, in the fields,
the low woods, and even the orchards and gardens. In fact, so numerous were
those interesting birds, that you might have fancied that an army of them had
assembled to take possession of the country. Scarce a leaf was yet expanded,
large icicles hung along the rocky shores, and I could not but feel surprised at
the hardihood of the little adventurers. At night they roosted in numbers in
the small evergreen trees, and by day they were to be seen flitting about
wherever the sun shone. If the morning was cold, you might catch them with the
hand, and several specimens, procured in that manner by children, were brought
to me. This happened in the neighbourhood of Eastport. By the end of a
fortnight, the greater part of them had pushed farther north. I met them
wherever I landed in the neighbouring islands, and along the shores of the Bay
of Fundy, as well as in the Straits of Canso, the Magdeleine Isles, and
Labrador. I have no doubt that the extraordinary congregation which I saw near
Eastport, was caused by the foresight of the tiny travellers, aware that they
could not at so early a period proceed farther without imminent danger. Many of
these birds, however, remain and breed in the State of Maine, and in the British
The Black-and-Yellow Warbler has a clear and sweetly modulated song,
surpassing that of many other birds of its tribe. It sings in the interior of
the low woods, to which it seems at all times to give a decided preference. Its
motions are extremely graceful; its tail is constantly spread as it flits along
the branches, or even while it is on the ground, to which it frequently betakes
itself, and its wings are usually held in a drooping position, so as to display
all the beauty of its plumage. It feeds on insects and their larvae. Now and
then it may be seen balancing itself in the air, opposite a cluster of leaves,
among which it darts to secure its prey; and not unfrequently it emerges a few
feet from among the foliage of a tree or bush, to seize a fluttering insect. In
catching its prey, it does not produce the clicking sound, caused by the sudden
meeting of the mandibles, so remarkable in some other species.
The nest, which is placed deep among the branches of low fir trees, is
supported by horizontal twigs, and is constructed of moss and lichens, lined
with fibrous roots, and a great quantity of feathers. In one, found in
Labrador, in the beginning of July, there were five small eggs, rather more
elongated than is usual in the genus. They were white, sprinkled with reddish
dots near the larger end. The female, on being disturbed, spread out her wings
and tail, fluttered along the branches in the agony of despair, lingered
trembling about the spot, and returned to the nest while we were only a few
yards distant from it.
During the first days of August, I saw many of the young following their
parents, and perceived that some were already on their way southward. While in
the Bay of St. George, Newfoundland, I again saw these birds daily, although
they became scarcer the longer we remained in the country. I also traced their
retrograde flight into Nova Scotia, but on landing in the United States lost
sight of them.
This beautiful Warbler is, according to Dr. RICHARDSON, a common bird on
the banks of the Saskatchewan river, where it enlivens the thickets of young
spruce trees and willows with its agreeable notes. It was not observed by Mr.
TOWNSEND on the Rocky Mountains or along the Columbia river.
As I proceeded towards the Texas, in the beginning of April, I found it in
considerable numbers on its way toward the United States. The eggs measure
five-eighths and three-fourths in length, four-eighths and a half in breadth; in
some instances the ground-colour is slightly tinged with very pale yellow.
BLACK-AND-YELLOW WARBLER, Sylvia magnolia, Wils. Amer. Orn., vol. iii.p. 63. Adult.
SYLVIA MACULOSA, Bonap. Syn., p. 78.
BLACK-AND-YELLOW WARBLER, Sylvia maculosa, Nutt. Man., vol. i. p. 370.
SYLVICOLA MACULOSA, Yellow-rump Warbler, F. Bor. Amer., vol. ii. p. 213.
BLACK-AND-YELLOW WARBLER, Sylvia maculosa, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. ii.p. 145, Adult; vol. i. p. 260, Young; vol. v. p. 458.
Wings of moderate length, the outer four quills nearly equal, the second
and third longest and equal, the fourth longer than the first; tail almost even.
Upper part of head and hind neck ash-grey; eye-lids, and a band over the eye,
white; part of forehead, loral space, and a broad band down the side of the
neck, with the fore part of the back, and upper tail-coverts, deep black; lower
parts and rump bright yellow; the lower part of the throat, the breast and
sides, spotted with black; wings and tail-feathers brownish-black, edged with
grey; two white bands on the wing; all the tail-feathers, except the middle two,
with a large patch of white on the inner web, at about two-thirds of their
length. Young yellowish-grey above, with the head light grey, the rump yellow;
lower parts of a duller yellow, with only faint dusky streaks on the sides.
Male, 5, 7 1/2.
From Texas northward. Very abundant. Migratory.
THE FLOWERING RASPBERRY.
RUBUS ODORATUS, Willd., Sp. Pl., vol. ii. p. 1085. Pursch, Fl. Amer.
Sept., vol. i. p. 348.--ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA, Linn.
This species of rasp has the stems hispid; the leaves three or five-lobed,
acute; the flowers in lateral and terminal corymbs, with divaricate stalks and
appendiculate calyces. It is abundant in the Middle and Eastern, but rare in
the Southern and Western Districts. It forms part of the rich undergrowth of
our woods, and also grows in old fields with other species of the genus. The
flowers are rose-coloured and showy, but destitute of odour, and the fruit is
delicious and highly fragrant, from which circumstance the species derives its