The Registry Of Nature Habitats - Audubon Birds of America -

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Birds of America

By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.


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Bill short, or of moderate length, rather slender, somewhat conical, considerably broader than high at the base, gradually compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal outline straight until near the end, the point very narrow, the notches very slight; lower mandible with the angle rather short and narrow, the dorsal line straight, the edges somewhat involute, the tip acute. Head moderate, ovate; neck short; body rather slender. Feet of moderate length; tarsus longer than the middle toe, slender, much compressed, with eight anterior scutella, of which the upper are blended; toes rather small, or of moderate size, hind toe proportionally stout, outer adherent for a short way at the base; claws moderate, much compressed, arched, acute. Plumage generally soft and blended. Wings of moderate length. Tail of moderate length, of twelve feathers. Tongue of moderate length, sagittate, tapering. OEsophagus of moderate width, without dilatation; proventriculus bulbiform; stomach of moderate size, roundish or elliptical, moderately muscular, with the muscles distinct; epithelium dense, longitudinally rugous; intestine short, rather wide; coeca very small; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.

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